Subordination and coordination are two different ways of linking sentences. If you think about a balance, we can say that, being each of the sides a clause, these are coordinated if balanced. On the other hand, if one of the sides of the balance is heavier than the other (ie, more important), we are talking about subordination. The main forms to introduce subordination are three:1. Subordinating conjunctions: if, that, when, because, although, etc 2. Wh- clause element: what, who, whoever, what time, how, etc. 3. Non finite predicators: infinitive, participle or –ing forms. FINITE SUBORDINATION (Noun, Adverbial, Relative, Comparative and Prepositional Clauses)
Finite VBPh are those containing finite verb, which is a verb showing tense (past or present) and Subject Concord(for person and number) and is either the operator (the first auxiliary in the VBPh) or the main VB (if there is no operator)
1. Noun Clauses 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. That clauses: Zero That clauses: Wh- clauses: That ghosts exist is highly controversial I told you Englishtm is a very good academy At Englishtm they taught us how grammar works
2. Adverbial Clauses 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7.Place (where, wherever) Time (when, before, after, as, while, until) Manner/Comparison (as, as if, as though) Reason (because, as, since) Purpose (so that, in order that) Condition (if, unless) Contrast (although, though) Students go wherever they find good teachers I realized that when I joined Englishtm There you learn as you need, that’s to say, easily So, you should visit Englishtm because thereyou learn all you need so that you can pass. I mean, visit Englishtm if you need some help and yes, although it’s hard to believe it really works
3. Relative Clauses 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. that clauses Zero that clauses Wh- clauses Do you know anyone that can teach good English? 1981 is the year I was born 1981 is the year where I was born Lengua Inglesa I is less difficult than Lengua Inglesa II(Preposition + Wh- Noun phrase = Prepositional Clause) We were astonished at what we learnt at Englishtm.
4. Comparative Clauses 5. Prepositional Clauses
Function of Subordinate Clauses
Noun Clauses Adverbials Clauses Prepositional Clauses Relative Clauses Comparative Clauses Prepositional Clauses
The ENGLISHTM files
Ejido alcantarilla st, 26, 23009, Jaén 953 088 394 -- firstname.lastname@example.orgDirect Subordination (rankscale) Subject, Object, Complement Adverbial Adverbial Indirect Subordination (rankshift) Modifier in Noun Phrases Modifier in Noun, Adjective and Adverb Phrases Modifier in Noun, Adjective and Adverb Phrases
Corresponding to the three non-finite forms of the verb [Infinitive (Vinf), Participle (Ven) and Gerund (Ving)] there are threetypes of clause, in which those forms occur as the first (or only) element of the predicator. Even though they lack a finite verb, such constructions are analysed as clauses, because they can be analysed into P, S, O, C, A, etc, just like finite verbs. There are one or two details, apart from the verb, which distinguish non-finite from finite clauses. For example, in some infinitive clauses aconjunction for normally precedes the subject, and the infinitive particle to normally precedes the VBPh (ie, It is important for me to tell everyone). In Ving clauses the subject is often a genitive form (ie. Spock’s having pointed ears was just a funny thing). It is also common to find passive meanings in Ven clauses and thus the typical complements of such structures (as seen in 3.3). But it is moresignificant, in other respects, that these non-finite clauses have almost the same structural possibilities as finite clauses: they can, for instance, be classified in terms of clause patterns. One point about non-finite clauses, however, is that the subject is frequently omitted (ie. Having pointed ears is a characteristic of Vulcans). 1. Non-finite noun clauses [these clauses often perform...