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The Periodic Table
Copyright © 2008 by Infobase Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Chelsea House An imprint of InfobasePublishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 library of congress cataloging-in-Publication data Ham, Becky. The Periodic table / Becky Ham. p. cm. — (Essential chemistry) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-7910-9533-1 (hardcover) ISBN-10: 0-7910-9533-9 (hardcover) 1. Periodic law—Tables. 2. Chemical elements. I. Title. II. Series. QD467.H335 2007 546'.8—dc22 2007022400Chelsea House books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Chelsea House on the World Wide Web at http://www.chelseahouse.com Text design by Erik Lindstrom Cover design by Ben Peterson Printed in theUnited States of America Bang NMSG 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper. All links and Web addresses were checked and verified to be correct at the time of publication. Because of the dynamic nature of the Web, some addresses and links may have changed since publication and may no longer be valid.

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What Is the Periodic Table? The History of the PeriodicTable What Elements Are Made of Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Lanthanides, Actinides, and Transuranium Elements

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Poor Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals: 65 The BCNOs Halogens and Noble Gases At the Table’s Edge
Periodic Table of the Elements Electron Configurations Table of Atomic Masses Glossary Bibliography Further Reading Index Photo CreditsAbout the Author 77 86 92 94 96 98 105 108 110 114 114


What Is the Periodic Table?
n 1977, two space probes lifted off from Earth on a mission to the outer reaches of the solar system. Voyager 1 and 2 each carried a unique item among the usual scientific instruments: a golden record filled with pictures, sounds, songs, and languages from around the world. The record was made of goldwrapped around a disc of copper, since recordings made on metal plates last longer and remain clearer than recordings made on ordinary plastic. The record, packaged with a needle and a power source to act as a basic record player, was designed to last for millions of years in outer space. The golden record was meant to be a quick guide to the Earth for anyone or anything that came across Voyager 1 or 2during their journeys across the stars. The pictures on the record were supposed to show what kinds of plants and animals lived on Earth, what the Earth itself looked like, and what humans were like at all ages and


the periodic table

in all countries. Other images included snowflakes, houses, an Xray of a hand, diagrams of a woman giving birth, crocodiles, and even an astronautin space. The golden record also included “greetings from Earth” in 55 different languages, 90 minutes of music from around the world, and noises such as the sound of a chirping cricket, the wind in a storm, and laughter. The cover of the golden record was marked with simple math symbols and drawings that explained what the record was and how it should be played. Although it did not make it ontothe golden record, there is one picture that could have explained all the materials that make up the people, animals, plants, rocks, oceans, and the rest of Earth. That picture is the periodic table of the elements. The periodic table answers the question “what are things made of?” If it sounds like something a small child might ask, it is good to remember that the answer was not obvious for...
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