Anatomy and Physiology I
* Text: The human Body in Health and Illness (Third Edition) Author: Barbara Herlihy
Publisher: SAUNDERS, ELSEVIER
a. Read chapter 22: Respiratory System, pages 369 to 394.
b. Answer the questions located in page 394:Review Your Knowledge. Remember post the answers in the assignment.
c. Answer the following questions base in chapter 22:
1. Illustrate, cite and explicate the structures, Location, anatomical features and function of the organs of the respiratory system.
Upper and lower respiratory tract: The upper respiratory tractcontains the respiratory organs located outside the chest cavity: the nose and nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, and upper trachea. The lower respiratory tract consists of organs located in the chest cavity: the lower trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli are located in the lungs. The alveoli are the tiny air sacs located at the end of the respiratory passages and are concerned with theexchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood.
Nose and nasal cavities: The nose includes an external portion the forms part of the face and internal portion called the nasal cavities. The nasal cavities are separated into right and left halves by a portion called the nasal septum. Air enters the nasal cavities through two openings called the nostrils or nares. Three bonyprojections called nasal conchae appear on the lateral walls of the nasal cavities. The conchae increase the surface area of the nasal cavities and support the ciliated mucous membrane, which lines the nasal cavities. The nasal cavities contain several drainage openings. Mucus from the paranasal sinuses drains into the nasal cavity. The pranasal sinuses include the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, andsphenoidal sinuses.
Pharynx: The pharynx or throat is behind the oral cavity and between the nasal cavities and the larynx. The pharynx includes three parts: an upper section called the nasopharynx, a middle section called the oropharynx, and a lower section called laringopharynx. The pharynx contains two other structures: the openings from the eustachian tubes and the tonsils.
Larynx: also called thevoicebox, is located between the pharynx and the trachea. The larynx has three functrions: it acts as a passageway for air during breathing; it produces sound, your voice; mand it prevents food and other foreign objects from entering the breathing structures. The largest of the cartilaginous is the thyroid cartilage. The tyroid cartilage is larger in men and is called Ada’s apple. The epilottisisanother cartilaginous structure, located at the top of the larynx . The vocal cords are folds of tissue composed of muscle and elastic ligaments and covered by mucous membrane. The glottis is the space between the vocal cords. The false vocal cords are called false because they do not produce sounds. The true vocal cords produce sound because they vibrate.
Trachea: or windpipe is a tube 4 to5 inches long 1 inch in diameter. The trachea splits, or bifurcates, at a point called the carina at the manubriosternal junction. The carina is very sensitive; touching it during suctioning causes vigorous coughing.
Bronchi: The primary bronchi enter the lungs at a region called the hilus. The primary bronqui branch into secondary bronchi, which branch into smaller tertiarybronqui.
Bronchioles: the bronchi divide repeatedly into smaller tubes called bronchioles. The walls of the bronchioles contain smooth muscle and no cartilage. The bronchioles regulate the flow of air to the alveoli.
Alveoli: The bronchioles continue to divide and give rise to many tubes called alveolar ducts. The alveoli are tiny air sacs that form at the end of the respiratory passages. The...