Phonetics: it is the science that studies the speech process.
Phonology: it is the science that studies the abstract side of the sounds of the language.

The phonetic system this compound for:

SEGMENTAL: divided in vowels and consonants.
SUPRASEGMENTAL: divided in accent, rhythm and intonation.

Phonemes: are the linguistically contrastive or significant sounds (or sets of sounds) of a language.

Allophones: it is a derived variable of a phoneme, it is a perception different to an auditory level.

In English, [p] and [ph] are allophones of the /p/ phoneme.
Switching( cambiar) allophones of the same phoneme won't change the meaning of theword: [sphIt] still means 'spit'.
Switching allophones of different phonemes will change the meaning of the word or result in a nonsense word: [skIt] and [stIt] do not mean 'spit'.
Contrastive distribution: is as minimally distintive units of sound that can alter the meaning of word.
Positional variation: the phoneme /p/ itself is an abstraction, or a sum of its allophones . the particular allophone or variety of /p/ that is produced depends on where it occurs in a given word.

Phonemes of English - CONSONANTS
When describing a consonant, use the following parameters:

VOICE: do your vocal cords vibrate?
PLACE: Which cavity is involved? Whicharticulators are used?
MANNER: how is the sound produced?

Voicing:
Try putting a hand lightly on your throat and then say the following words,
drawing out the initial sounds. If you feel vibration, this means that your vocal cords are open and the sound in question is a voiceless sound. If, on the other hand, you feel some vibration or a buzzing feeling, this is due to the vibration of your vocal cords which are closed together. This means that the sound you are making is a voiced sound.
Place of Articulation

in the production of sound, air passes through one or both of two passageways: the oral cavity (mouth) or the nasal passageway (nose), depending [continua]

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