Robotics handbook of computer vision algorithms in image alg ebra.pdf

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Stefan Florczyk

Robot Vision
Video-based Indoor Exploration with Autonomous and Mobile Robots

Author Dr. Stefan Florczyk Munich University of Technology Institute for Computer Science florczyk@in.tum.de

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All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book,to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No.: applied for British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek DieDeutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at .

Cover Picture They’ll Be More Independent, Smarter and More Responsive  Siemens AG, Reference Number: SO CT 200204

 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of thisbook may be reproduced in any form – nor transmitted or translated into machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Printed on acid-free paper. Typesetting Kühn & Weyh, Satz und Medien, FreiburgPrinting betz-druck GmbH, Darmstadt Bookbinding Litges & Dopf Buchbinderei GmbH, Heppenheim ISBN 3-527-40544-5

Dedicated to my parents

VII

Contents
List of Figures
XI XV

Symbols and Abbreviations 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Introduction
1

Image Processing

9

Color Models 10Filtering 11 Kalman Filter 11 Gabor Filter 13 Application of the Gabor Filter 16 Morphological Image Processing 22 The Structuring Element 22 Erosion 23 Dilation 23 Edge Detection 24 Skeleton Procedure 28 The Segmentation of Image Regions 28 Threshold 29
Navigation
33

Coordinate Systems 33 Representation Forms 36 Grid-based Maps 36 Graph-based Maps 37 Path Planning 38 Topological Path Planning38 Behavior-based Path Execution 39 Global Path Planning 39 Local Path Planning 40 The Combination of Global and Local Path Planning

40

Robot Vision: Video-based Indoor Exploration with Autonomous and Mobile Robots. Stefan Florczyk Copyright  2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-40544-5

VIII

Contents

3.4 3.5
4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.2

The Architecture of aMultilevel Map Representation 42 Self-localization 43
Vision Systems
47

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3
5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

The Human Visual Apparatus 47 The Functionality 47 The Visual Cortex 48 The Human Visual Apparatus as Model for Technical Vision Systems 49 AttentionControl 50 Passive Vision 51 Active Vision 51 Space-variant Active Vision 52 Camera Types 53 Video Cameras 53 CCD Sensors 53 Analog Metric Cameras 55
CAD
57

Constructive Solid Geometry 57 Boundary-representation Schema (B-rep) 58 Approximate Models 59 Octrees 60 Extended Octrees 60 Voxel Model 61 Hybrid Models 62 Procedures to Convert the Models 62 The Use of CAD in Computer Vision 63 TheApproximation of the Object Contour 64 Cluster Search in Transformation Space with Adaptive Subdivision 66 The Generation of a Pseudo-B-rep Representation from Sensor Data 71 Three-dimensional Reconstruction with Alternative Approaches 74 Partial Depth Reconstruction 74 Three-dimensional Reconstruction with Edge Gradients 75 Semantic Reconstruction 77 Mark-based Procedure 83
Stereo Vision 87

Stereo...
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