A brief description of the Indian Sacred texts,
Vedas and Upanisad.
By, Antonio Rivera Montoya, Exchange program student, Universidad Catolica Cardenal Raúl Silva Henriquez, Santiago de Chile.
Tutor, Recto of Salesian College Sonada, Fr (Dr.) Tomy Augustine SDB.
Bachelor of arts, Philosophy.
October 3rd, 2011, Sonada, India.
Indian history ischaracterized by great civilizations, invasions, epic battles, cataclysms, contradictions, religions and philosophy, about the last topic is based this paper.
The work shows the beginning of the philosophical overview showing the historical background of the first Indian communities, it explain briefly some characteristics of people, believes, habits and sacred texts, it doesn’t focus in religion althoughall Indian culture is based in these sacred texts, which are developed in the paper, showing how they are grouped and it explains the main points of each one.
This work is focused on two of the most important texts of India, these are The Vedas and The Upanishad, texts explained according to their structures, thesis, believes, schools of studies and main teachings.
The paper was written as ageneral view about the texts, and it does not reflect all the Cultural, religious and philosophical richness that India Has. It tries to explain some characteristics of the subcontinent philosophical knowledge from the curiosity of an occidental student who is beginning at the understanding of this science.
The understanding of the Vedas starts in the search of truth, which is a long way thatimplies as a characteristic be a truthful person.
1. - Historical background.
1.1 The Vedic Period.
1.2 The Upanisad Period.
2. - Sacred texts.
2.1 Sruti and Smrti distinction.
2.1.1 The Vedas.
188.8.131.52,1 Rg Veda.
184.108.40.206.2 Yajur Veda.
220.127.116.11.3 Sama Veda.
18.104.22.168.4 Atharva Veda.
2.1.4 Upanishad orVedanta.
22.214.171.124 Definition of the term
126.96.36.199.1 Brhad aranyak Upanisad.
188.8.131.52.2 Chandogya Upanisad.
184.108.40.206.3 Aitareya Upanisad.
220.127.116.11.4 Taittiriya Upanisad.
18.104.22.168.5 Isa Upanisad.
22.214.171.124.6 Kena Upanisad.
126.96.36.199.7 Katha Upanisad.
188.8.131.52.8 Prasna Upanisad.
184.108.40.206.9 Mundaka Upanisad.
220.127.116.11.10 Mandukya Upanisad.
18.104.22.168.11 Svetasvatara Upanisad.22.214.171.124.12 Kausitaki Brahmana Upanisad.
126.96.36.199.13 Maitri Upanisad.
188.8.131.52.14 Subala Upanisad.
184.108.40.206.15 Jabala Upanisad.
220.127.116.11.16 Paingala Upanisad.
18.104.22.168.17 Kaivalya Upanisad.
22.214.171.124.18 Vajrasucika Upanisad.
126.96.36.199 Hermeneutic Pluralism (Metaphysical perspective)
188.8.131.52.1 Kevala-Advaita-Vada (Sankara)
184.108.40.206.2 Visista-Advaita-Vada (Ramanuja)220.127.116.11.3 Dvaita-Vada (Madhva)
18.104.22.168.4 Dvaita-Advaita-Vada (Nimbarka)
22.214.171.124.5 Suddha-Advaita-Vada (Vallabha)
126.96.36.199.6 Acintya-Bheda-Abheda-Vada (Caitanya)
188.8.131.52 Fundamental teachings.
1. - Historical Background.
The first inhabitant of India were nomadic people, they cultivated the earth and kept domestic animals, this way was born the Harappa or Harappan, theyestablished in the actual territory of Pakistan, located towards the northern reaches of the Indus river Punjab. They developed systems of weight, measures and Art.
At the very beginning of the second millennium B.C another tribe named Aryan, invaded the territory, they came from Afghanistan and Central Asia. The word Aryan means “Noble”, “Who speaks Sanskrit”, “respected” and “Kindly”, in this waythe term was related to the people and the language. They were the first people who wrote and kept the Vedas. It was in this period that the caste system began, this way was born the distinction among the social groups Non-Aryan, Sudras, outcastes, tribal people etc.
1.1 The Vedic Period.
It is not possible to determinate the exactly age of this era, it was approximately about 1500 to 700...