Siddartha gautama

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  • Publicado : 1 de septiembre de 2010
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Introduction
African Music is diverse and dynamic, exist many styles which characterize different areas and groups of people as a social and cultural way. “Ghana is one of the most heterogeneous culturally and linguistically countries into the African continent, as the largest ethnic group in Ghana, Akans comprise a number of subgroups that are differentiated from one another by minordistinctions. The principal Akan groups are Ashanti, Fante, Kwahu, Akim, Akwapim, and brong”. (Adinkrah, 2008, p. 301). The distinguishing factors of West African music are its polyrhythmic structure, call and response, and its intrinsic spirituality. These elements have also influenced many other styles of music, especially in the Americans. (Levin, 2010). Music has an important role among the Ghanaiansociety; it has multiple functions not only as an expression mechanism but also as a communication instrument which participates in every aspect of daily life. Into African Culture it is unthinkable some events without music. “In my country (Ghana) there are traditional songs for every special occasion, if somebody dies, we sing, if somebody get married we sign, even if a child loose a tooth wesign.” (Forson, 2010).
Study Case.
Music is clearly an integral part of the life of every African individual from the moment of his birth. The musical games played by children are a form of musical training which prepares them to participate in all areas of adult activity like fishing, hunting, farming, grinding maize, attending weddings, funerals, dances and by necessity, even fleeing from wildanimals. This explains why every conceivable sound has its place in traditional African music. It is highly functional in ethnic life, accompanying birth, marriage, hunting, and even political activities. Much music exists solely for entertainment, ranging from narrative songs to highly stylized musical theater. (Francis, 1975, p. 8).
Bells and drums are the most frequently used instruments amongAkan communities. Most ensembles use bells, and a solo bell may provide rhythmic accompaniment for singing. Other instruments include xylophones, water drums and percussion pots are used in events of the lifecycle, seasonal rituals, work labor and village festivals. Other context for the performance of music include ceremonies at court, elaborate ceremonies or voodoo (in which possession occurs),and the secret society of night hunters, all of which show similarities with Yoruba religion contexts. (M., 2008, p. 187).
As stated by Omar Morton a Ghanaian member of Ashanti tribe; Animism belief in Ghana is based on the idea that natural objects such as animals and trees which may have a sacred essence, as well as man-made symbols such as fetishes idols & deities are imbued withsupernatural powers. It is also believed that witch doctors, diviners and herbalists have control over these powers to afford some sort of protection or good luck or conversely. (Morton, 2010).
Drums play a dominant role in social life, both as a form of communication and as music; it is used to sending messages in code through faraway distances among the same members tribe; in fact it is like atelephone (Forson, 2010). The drummer of the talking drums is called the creator’s drummer. He is in the enviable position of being able to call the chief and his ancestors on the drums; he is closest to the spirit of the ancestor chiefs whom he addresses and close to nature. In accordance with the world-view held by Akan, he conjures up the spirit of creation from whom the components of his drums wereobtained. Moreover he is immune from assaults and is protected by the privileges of sacred persons (Nketia, 1963, pp. 153,154). The art of drumming requires knowledge, skill and perfection, because opportunities of drumming and learning to drum are not open to all. In social life drumming are carried by males. Women do not drum as rule, except at puberty festivals because the drum is in certain...
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