South american borrowings as a main source of enriching the american variant of english language

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MOSCOW INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES


Department of Foreign Languages

Chair of the English Language




GRADUATION PAPER

“South American borrowings as a major source of enriching

American English”Introduction………………………………………………………………….3
Chapter 1 – Borrowings and their role in the language………………….......5
1. Borrowed Words………………………………………...5
2. Classification of Borrowings…………………………….6
Chapter 2 – Borrowings in American English……………………………….11
1. American English and sources of its word stock………..112. Major periods of borrowings in American English……..12
Chapter 3 – South American Borrowings……………………………………24
1. Spanish and Latin American Borrowings……………….24
3.1.1. Spanish Borrowings……………………………………..24
3.1.2. Latin American Borrowings……………………………..27
3.1.3. Borrowings from Portuguese and its Brazilian variety….37
3.2.Borrowings from Indian Languages of Central and South
America………………………………………………….45
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………60
Bibliography…………………………………………………………………..63
Appendix 1……………………………………………………………………65
Appendix 2……………………………………………………………………66
Appendix 3……………………………………………………………………67
Appendix 4……………………………………………………………………68
Appendix 5……………………………………………………………………69Appendix 6……………………………………………………………………70
Introduction
The graduation paper is devoted to the study of South American borrowings in American English. The aim of the investigation is to show how the languages of South America influence American English and American way of life, how South American borrowings enrich the vocabulary of American English and how and where people of the US come intocontact with the representatives of three particular groups of South American languages: Spanish of Latin America, Portuguese of Brazil and Indian languages of South America. The urgency of this work defines the necessity for better and profound research of the US linguistic world picture. Do they really use borrowings from these languages? And if they do, we will try to understand what for they needthem, in which spheres of life they adopt new words, how such words penetrate in their life and culture and how they change American English and the US people’s world scope. The theoretical value of this work consists in various kind of information about the history of American English, history of South American languages, about immigrants from South America, the facts from their lives in the US,about the culture and traditions of both the US and South American countries and how they cooperate and share knowledge in different aspects. The practical value of this work is based on innumerous number of borrowings from Spanish of Mexico, Argentina, Puerto Rico and other countries, Portuguese of Brazil and Indian Languages-Quechua, Guarani and Nahuatl and how the US natives adapt them, usethem in everyday speech, where they may come across them, which spheres of life are affected by them and which are not. Besides introduction and conclusion the work includes three chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the notion of borrowed words and their classification. The second chapter is connected with the borrowings in American English from different languages, mainly from the languagesof the most important immigrant groups. The third chapter deals with the borrowings from South American languages and their linguistic impact on American English. The investigation has been made on different data and methods: the method of analysis of both American English and South American languages, how they interpenetrate each other, the advantages of this interpenetration; the method of...
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