Structure of the atom

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Introduction
For knowing what an atomic structure is the first thing we have to know is what an atom is.
The atom is the smallest particle of matter. The atomic structure is made of a nucleus which posses a proton and a neutron, the atom contains something around it nucleus which is called electrons that moves at immense speeds.
Atoms are incredibly small and are mostly empty space.
All theparticles in an atom are very light. Their mass is measured in atomic mass units. Protons and electrons have an electric charge, whereas neutrons do not have an electric charge.

The earliest models
The first record of a reasonable approach to the structure of the atom was proposed by the greek scientist Democritus, who left the world long time ago, he proposed that all in existence iscomprised of 2 things: atoms and the void.
The word atom derives from the Greek ‘’atomos’’ which means ‘’indivisible’’, that concept is called atomism.
Democritus ideas:
1. all reality Is made of particles in the space
2. They have motion
3. They are indivisible
4. Things differ because of the shape and position of their atoms
5. Atoms make life predictable
This was only aphilosophical idea with no supporting evidence.
Unfortunately plato and Aristotle who are more popular philosophers proposed the concept of atomism.
All of the material world ultimately consists of tiny little blocks of matter that cannot be reduced in size further. They are the smallest units of matter. Like little lego blocks. These "atoms" are colorless and arranged in various ways in order toproduce everything that is material in the universe. There is much more detail but that is the jist of it. Colors are supposed to be produced when a certain arrangement of atoms come together, and the atoms aren't necessarily all the same exact shape. Basically ancient atomism is as classic a materialist view of reality as you can get. There only ultimately exist two things, atoms and the void.
WhileAristotelian philosophy eclipsed the importance of the atomists, their work was still preserved and exposited through commentaries on the works of Aristotle. In the 2nd century, Galen (AD 129–216) presented extensive discussions of the Greek atomists, especially Epicurus, in his Aristotle commentaries. According to historian of atomism Joshua Gregory, there was no serious work done with atomismfrom the time of Galen until Gassendi and Descartes resurrected it in the 17th century; "the gap between these two 'modern naturalists' and the ancient Atomists marked "the exile of the atom" and "it is universally admitted that the Middle Ages had abandoned Atomism, and virtually lost it." However, scholars still had Aristotle's critiques of atomism, and it seems unlikely that all ideas of atomismcould have been lost in the West. In the Medieval universities there were rare expressions of atomistic philosophy. For example, in the 14th century Nicholas of Autrecourt considered that matter, space, and time were all made up of indivisible atoms, points, and instants and that all generation and corruption took place by the rearrangement of material atoms. The similarities of his ideas withthose of al-Ghazali suggest that Nicholas may have been familiar with Ghazali's work, perhaps through Averroes' refutation of it (Marmara, 1973–74).
Still, "the exile of the atom" is an appropriate description of the interim between the ancient Greeks and the revival of Western atomism in the 16th century, in view of atomism's success elsewhere during that time. If the atom was in exile from thewest, it was in India and Islam that atomistic traditions continued

Corpuscularianism is the postulate, expounded in the 13th-century by the alchemist Pseudo-Geber (Geber), sometimes identified with Paul of Taranto, that all physical bodies possess an inner and outer layer of minute particles or corpuscles. Corpuscularianism is similar (this is the electrical pulses ) to the theory atomism,...
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