Read the following text from the book “International Politics on the World Stage” (by John T. Rourke).
Answer the following questions:
1. In which way did theinternational system change after the Treaty of Westphalia?
After the Treaty of Westphalia the macropolitical claims of universalistic authority bye the pope and the Hole Roman Emperor were beingchallenged by the growing power of the kings. This decline of papal authority and increase in royal power were reinforced by the Renaissance. Martin Luther rejected the Catholic Church as the necessaryintermediary between people and God. In 1517 Luther proclaimed his belief that anyone could have an individual relationship with God., near early a quarter of the people of Western Europe becameProtestants. The ostensible issue was religious freedom, but there were also important political causes and consequences. When the century- long between the imperial and Catholic Holy Roman Empire and thenationalist and Protestant ethnic groups ended with the Treaty of Westphalia, centralized political power in Europe was over. The Holy Roman Empire had splintered into two rival Catholic Monarchies (Austria and Spain), a number of Protestant entities (such as Holland and many German states) gained independence or autonomy.
2. Explain the term “popular sovereignty”. Is a political doctrine thatholds that sovereign political authority resides with the citizens of a state of a state. According to this doctrine, the citizenry grant a certain amount of authority to the state, its government,and, especially, its specific political leaders (such as monarchs, presidents, and prime ministers), but do not surrender ultimate sovereignty.
3. Explain the term “westernization” of theinternational system.
I s a number of factors, including scientific and technological advances, contributed to the domination of the West over the international system that was essentially created by the...