# Termodinamic

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Fig. Placas

Fig. Tubulares

Unit I “ Basic concept of thermodynamics “

Weights and measures" redirects here. For the UK law, see Weights and Measures Act. For the international standards organization, see International Bureau of Weights and Measures. For the 18 member core group that meets every year, seeInternational Committee for Weights and Measures. For the larger group that meets only every four to six years, see General Conference on Weights and Measures

The former Weights and Measures office in Seven Sisters, London

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the samephysical quantity.[1] Any other value of the physical quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of measurement

For example, length is a physical quantity. The metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres (or 10 m), we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called "metre"

The definition, agreement,and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Disparate systems of units used to be very common. Now there is a global standard, the International System of Units (SI), the modern form of the metric system
In trade, weights and measures is often a subject of governmental regulation, to ensure fairness and transparency.The Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM) is tasked with ensuring worldwide uniformity of measurements and their traceability to the International System of Units (SI). Metrology is the science for developing nationally and internationally accepted units of weights and measures

In physics and metrology, units are standards for measurement of physical quantities that need cleardefinitions to be useful. Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method. A standard system of units facilitates this. Scientific systems of units are a refinement of the concept of weights and measures developed long ago for commercial purposes

Science, medicine, and engineering often use larger and smaller units of measurement than those used in everyday life andindicate them more precisely. The judicious selection of the units of measurement can aid researchers in problem solving (see, for example, dimensional analysis)

In the social sciences, there are no standard units of measurement and the theory and practice of measurement is studied in psychometrics and the theory of conjoint measurement

History

A unit of measurement is astandardised quantity of a physical property, used as a factor to express occurring quantities of that property. Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans. Primitive societies needed rudimentary measures for many tasks: constructing dwellings of an appropriate size and shape, fashioning clothing, or bartering food or raw materials

The earliest known uniform systems ofweights and measures seem to have all been created sometime in the 4th and 3rd millennia BC among the ancient peoples of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley, and perhaps also Elam in Persia as well

In "The Magna Carta" of 1215 (The Great Charter) with the seal of King John, put before him by the Barons of England, King John agreed in Clause 35 "There shall be one measure of wine throughoutour whole realm, and one measure of ale and one measure of corn--namely, the London quart;--and one width of dyed and russet and hauberk cloths--namely, two ells below the selvage…." The Magna Carta helped lay the foundations of freedom codified in English Law and subsequently American Law

Many systems were based on the use of parts of the body and the natural surroundings as measuring...