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Heat Transfer Mechanisms

1-44C The thermal conductivity of a material is the rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of the material per unit area and per unit temperature difference. The thermal conductivity of a material is a measure of how fast heat will be conducted in that material.

1-45C The mechanisms of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction isthe transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas which is in motion, and it involves combined effects of conduction and fluid motion. Radiation is energy emitted by matter in the form ofelectromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules.

1-46C In solids, conduction is due to the combination of the vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and the energy transport by free electrons. In gases and liquids, it is due to the collisions of the molecules during their random motion.

1-47C The parameters that effect therate of heat conduction through a windowless wall are the geometry and surface area of wall, its thickness, the material of the wall, and the temperature difference across the wall.

1-48C Conduction is expressed by Fourier's law of conduction as [pic] where dT/dx is the temperature gradient, k is the thermal conductivity, and A is the area which is normal to the direction of heat transfer.Convection is expressed by Newton's law of cooling as [pic] where h is the convection heat transfer coefficient, As is the surface area through which convection heat transfer takes place, [pic] is the surface temperature and [pic] is the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface.
Radiation is expressed by Stefan-Boltzman law as [pic] where [pic] is the emissivity of surface,As is the surface area, [pic] is the surface temperature, [pic] is average surrounding surface temperature and [pic] is the Stefan-Boltzman constant.

1-49C Convection involves fluid motion, conduction does not. In a solid we can have only conduction.

1-50C No. It is purely by radiation.

1-51C In forced convection the fluid is forced to move by external means such as a fan, pump, or thewind. The fluid motion in natural convection is due to buoyancy effects only.

1-52C Emissivity is the ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature. Absorptivity is the fraction of radiation incident on a surface that is absorbed by the surface. The Kirchhoff's law of radiation states that the emissivity and the absorptivity of asurface are equal at the same temperature and wavelength.

1-53C A blackbody is an idealized body which emits the maximum amount of radiation at a given temperature and which absorbs all the radiation incident on it. Real bodies emit and absorb less radiation than a blackbody at the same temperature.

1-54C No. Such a definition will imply that doubling the thickness will double the heattransfer rate. The equivalent but “more correct” unit of thermal conductivity is W.m/m2.(C that indicates product of heat transfer rate and thickness per unit surface area per unit temperature difference.

1-55C In a typical house, heat loss through the wall with glass window will be larger since the glass is much thinner than a wall, and its thermal conductivity is higher than the averageconductivity of a wall.

1-56C Diamond is a better heat conductor.

1-57C The rate of heat transfer through both walls can be expressed as
[pic]
where thermal conductivities are obtained from table A-5. Therefore, heat transfer through the brick wall will be larger despite its higher thickness.

1-58C The thermal conductivity of gases is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature....