EXPERIMENTAL UNIVERSITY OF THE ARMED FORCE
CHAIR: THE FIRST ENGLISH
SEMESTER SECTION: 6
ENGINEERING IN SYSTEMS
Pollution of the Water
Profesora: Elaborado Por:
Caracas, 2 de Junuary del 2009
THEIMPORTANCE OF THE WATER
The water is one of the natural fundamental resources and is one of four basic resources on which the development rests (relies), together with the air, the land and the energy.
The water is the most abundant chemical compound of the planet and turns out to be indispensable for the development of the life. It is formed(trained) by an atom of oxygen and two ofhydrogen, and his chemical formula is H2O. In the nature he is solid-state, liquid or gaseous.
The pure water is a renewable resource, nevertheless it can manage to be so contaminated by the human activities, which already it(she) is not useful, but harmful, of deficient quality.
The evaluation of the quality of the water has had a slow development. Until ends of the 19th centurythe water was not recognized as origin of numerous infectious diseases; nevertheless nowadays, the importance both of the quantity and of the quality of the water is out of any doubt.
The importance that has received (charged) the quality of the water has allowed to demonstrate that between (among) the factors or agents who cause the pollution of her they are: pathogenic agents, tailingthat need oxygen, chemical organic and inorganic substances, vegetable(plant) nutrients that cause excessive growth of water plants, sediments or suspended material, radioactive substances and the heat.
The pollution of the water is the degree of defilement, which can originate adverse effects to the health of a representative number of persons during predictable periods of time.The importance it is considered that the water is contaminated, when already it cannot be in use for the use that was going to give him, in its natural state or when there meet upset his chemical, physical, biological properties and / or his composition. In general lines, the water is contaminated when it loses his portability for daily consumption or for his utilization in domestic, industrialor agricultural activities.
To avoid the consequences of the use of the contaminated water there have been designed mechanisms of early control of the pollution. There exist procedure that establish the permissible ranges of pollution, which seek to assure that the water that is in use should not be harmful. Every country must have an institution that one entrusts of the above mentionedcontrol. In The United States there exist parameters mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States (USP) that Norman in relation to the specifications of all kinds in the drinkable water, in the microbiological area there are born in mind levels of alert and levels of action.
In spite of the control and prevention that is chased (prosecuted) in many countries, waters bring (report)contaminated with coliformes what does that the quality of the water is not the wished one, though many countries have water in big quantities, the population increase, the pollution of the industries, the excessive use of agrochemical, the lack of treatment of black waters and the erosion of soils for the deforestation do that this resource is scanty. In Guatemala every year there take place (areproduced) 380 million cubic meters of black waters and of them, only 19 million are treated. The rest comes with all his pollutant load to the rivers and lakes.
The provision of sweet water is diminishing worldwide; 1200 million inhabitants do not have access to a sure drinking fountain. The diseases for contaminated waters more than 4 million children kill a year and 20 % of all the aquatic...