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Psychological point of view
From the nineteenth century medicine, psychiatry and pedagogy began to classify sexual heterogeneity: Campe, Salzmann, Kaan, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Tardieu Molle andHavelock Ellis, they were more representative psychiatrists. The domain of sex ceased to be positioned in the record of failure and the sin to enter in the register of sexual morbidity that is, normaland pathological.
Richard von Krafft-Ebing, one of the fathers of modern psychiatry regarded homosexuality as a degenerative disease in his "Psychopatia Sexualis" of 1886. The doctor Havelock Ellis,the psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Magnus Hirschfeld, founder of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Association, the psychiatrist Carl Westphal and psychoanalyst Sandor Ferenczi did not consider homosexualityas pathology and defended the rights of homosexuals.
In 1921 the psychoanalyst Otto Rank, backed by Freud, defended the right of homosexuals to join the International Psychoanalytical Association.Ernest Jones, however, was strongly opposed.
Psychiatric initially included homosexuality among the disorders could be treated.
Between 1898 and 1908 were published more than one psychiatric work onthe subject of homosexuality.
Psychoanalysts academics of Freud's work, as Élisabeth Roudinesco, the president of the International Society of the history of psychiatry and psychoanalysis (SociétéInternationale d'Histoire de la Psychiatrie et de la Psychanalyse), argue that it did not consider homosexuality a "anomaly" as did the psychiatry of his time but postulated that everyone could do this"choice" because of the universality of psychic bisexuality postulated by him.
Freud did not classify homosexuality in the category of perverse sexual practices such as zoophilia, fetishism,coprophilia or exhibitionism to distinguish the psychic structure of perversion and perverse sexual acts performed by both men and women are heterosexual or homosexual.
The concept of perversion in Freud...
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