22-2 To be effective, management control systems should be (a) closely aligned to anorganization's strategies and goals, (b) designed to fit the organization's structure and the decision-making responsibility of individual managers, and (c) able to motivate managers and employees to putin effort to attain selected goals desired by top management.
22-3 Motivation combines goal congruence and effort. Motivation is the desire to attain a selected goal specified by top management (thegoal-congruence aspect) combined with the resulting pursuit of that goal (the effort aspect).
22-4 The chapter cites five benefits of decentralization:
1. Creates greater responsiveness to localneeds
2. Leads to gains from faster decision making
3. Increases motivation of subunit managers
4. Aids management development and learning
5. Sharpens the focus of subunit managers
The chaptercites four costs of decentralization:
1. Leads to suboptimal decision making
2. Results in duplication of activities
3. Focuses managers’ attention on the subunit rather than the company as a whole4. Increases costs of gathering information
22-5 No. Organizations typically compare the benefits and costs of decentralization on a function-by-function basis. For example, companies with highlydecentralized operating divisions frequently have centralized income tax strategies.
22-6 No. A transfer price is the price one subunit of an organization charges for a product or service suppliedto another subunit of the same organization. The two segments can be cost centers, profit centers, or investment centers. For example, the allocation of service department costs to production...