Types of learning can be categorized into three groups:
Cognitive learning. This means knowledge learning. It not only includes the knowledge per se, but also what to do with it or how to apply it. Thus the investigative process and the principles of problem solving and decision making are part of this group.
Much learning of this nature is imparted by the lecture method, but can bereinforced by a variety of methods such as private study, process reviews, role plays and case studies.
Psychomotor learning. These are the physical skills that are required in order to complete a task. Examples would be driving a car or giving an oral presentation.
The most effective environment in which to gain these physical skills is in the 'laboratory', in which students actually gain hands-onexperience. The lecturer only prepares the student by giving him the knowledge before entering the arena to practice. It is only in the arena that the real learning takes place. This experiential approach is used in the training of airline pilots in simulators.
Affective learning. This is related to attitudes, values and interests and is the most difficult training of all, mainly because it isdifficult to measure.
TRAINING METHODS :-
All training methods can be grouped into two categories :-
-Training methods for operatives
- Training methods for managers
a] Training Methods for Operatives :-
Under these methods the new employee is assigned to a specific job at a machine or workshop or laboratory. He is instructed by an experienced employee or by a special supervisor who explainsto him the method of handling tools, operating the machines etc.
Vestibule Training : This method involves the creation of a separate training centre within the plant itself for the purpose of providing training to the new employees. An experienced instructor is put in-charge of this training. Machines and tools are also managed in the training centre, so as to create working conditions similarto those in the workshop.
Advantage : No interference with regular production.
Disadvantage: Costly, adds nothing to productions during training period.
Apprenticeship Training :-This method of training is meant to give the trainee sufficient knowledge and skill in those trades and crafts in which a long period of training is required for gaining complete proficiency.
Generally, thetrainees work as apprentices under the direct supervision of experts for long periods of say, two to seven years. This programme consists of providing actual work experience in the actual job as well as imparting theoretical knowledge through class room lectures which may be arranged either in the plant or in the institution attached to the concern. This method of training enables the trainees to becomeall-round craftsmen. But this method is very expensive and also there is no guarantee that a trained worker will continue to work in the same concern after the training is completed.
Internship Training :- This method of training is generally provided to the skilled and technical personnel. The object of this type of training is to bring about a balance between theoretical and practicalknowledge, under this method, students from a technical institution possessing only theoretical knowledge are sent to some business enterprise to gain practical work experience. Simultaneously, the employees of business enterprises are sent to technical institutions to gain the latest theoretical knowledge on a subject.
b] Training Methods for Managers :-
Executive talent is the most important assetwhich a company can posses. Although, it does not appear on the company's balance sheet, but it produces more important effects on the company's progress, its profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in its possession.
The following are the various training methods for managers.
1] Observation Assignment :-
Under this method, the newly recruited executive called "understudy" is...
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