Eastern Christian Lands.
Alter the Roman empires division in A.D. 395, the eastern half became known as the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine Empire traced its origins to the time of the Roman emperor Constantine. In A.D. 330 Constantine built the city of Constantinople. The straits made Constantinople a crossroads for trade between the sea ofMarmora.
Constantinople became a major economic, political and cultural center of the Roman Empire.
A cultural blend.
However, the empires population consisted of many peoples including Egyptians, Syrians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs and Turks.
Byzantine civilization developed into one of the most advanced in the world, and its people had a higher standard of living than thepeople of Western Europe.
From A.D. 527 to A.D. 565, the early Byzantine Empire was ruled by one of its greatest emperor Justinian.
Justinian’s enthusiasm for knowledge and hard work began when he was a young court official during the reign of his uncle Emperor Justin I.
Within a generation of Justinian’s death, the Byzantine Empire lost many of its outlying territories.Church and State.
Strong ties linked Byzantine emperors and the Eastern Church. As Gods representatives on earth, emperors tried to unify the Byzantine Empire under one Christian faith, a practice that sometimes led the persecution that sometimes led the persecution of Jews and non Greek Christians.
From A.D. 500 to A.D. 800, when Western Europe was in decline, brilliantcenter of civilization. The Byzantines also excelled in explaining Christian theology, or religious teachings.
They created new art forms and brought the religion of the Eastern Orthodox Church to Eastern Europe.
Byzantine society was divided into social groups organized according to levels of rank. Byzantine women were expected to live partly in seclusion, although they hadgrained some rights through the efforts of Justinian’s wife Theodora.
Byzantine art primarily focused on religious subjects. The Byzantines also excelled in the art of mosaic or picture made of many tiny pieces of colored glass or flat stone set in plaster.
Spread of Christianity.
The Byzantine were influential in the development and spread of Christianity.
Monasteries and conventssoon played an important role in Byzantine life. The most successful missionaries were the brothers Cyril and Methodius.
Slavs with Cyrillic translation of the bible and church ceremonies.
Decline and fall.
The Byzantine Empire suffered frequent attacks by invading armies. Turks a central Asian people who practiced Islam, defeated the Byzantines at the town of Mazikert. By the late A.D. 1300s,the years of fighting had severely weakened the Byzantines.
Armenia and Georgia.
Christian civilizations arose in the kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia.
Between A.D. 300 and A.D. 1200, Armenia and Georgia prospered.
By the end of this period, Armenia and Georgia had become a battleground.
During the Byzantine era, the Slavs were among the largest groups of Eastern Europe. TheDnieper River then overland to the Baltic Sea.
From Slavic trading posts along the Dnieper emerged a civilization.
The primary Chronicle, a collection of early Slavic history and legends, Kiev a fortress village on the Dnieper River, had become the major city of a region of Slavic territories known as Kievan Rus.
Rise of Moscow.
Moscow became prosperous because of its locationnear vital and water routs.
Moscow advanced its position among the Slavic and diplomacy.
Within to hundred years, Moscow’s rules would lay the foundations of the powerful Slavic empire of Russia.
Between the Red sea and the Persian Gulf lies the Arabia peninsula, a large wedge of land consisting mostly of arid plains and deserts.
Makkah a crossroads of...
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