First Report of Pantoea sp. Induced Soft Rot Disease of Pleurotus eryngii in Korea. M. K. Kim, J. S. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, Division of Plant Environmental Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360, Korea; and H. D. Yun, Research Institute of Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jin Ju 660-701, Korea. Plant Dis. 91:109, 2007;published on-line as DOI: 10.1094/PD-910109A. Accepted for publication 2 October 2006. The king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, has become a popular crop because of its unique flavor and texture and is cultivated in many areas in Korea. In 2003, symptoms of water-soaked lesions and soft rot in the stipes and pileus of cultivated P. eryngii was observed in Jinju, Korea. Diseased tissue was platedon nutrient media. Dominate colonies were yellow, convex, circular with smooth margins, and had a shiny texture. Computer analysis of the data gathered, using the API kit (50CHE, bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France), showed that the strain belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae. Although the API system did not give an exact identification, the metabolic profile of the bacterial strain closely resembledthe database profile of Pantoea sp. (positive for acid production from the fermentation of D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-trehalose, and D-ribose and negative for oxidase, urease, pectate, and thiosulfate). The 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium was determined (GenBank Accession No. AY530796). When compared with those in GenBank, the bacterium was determined to belong to theEnterobacteriaceae family of the Gammaproteobacteria, and the highest degree of sequence similarity was found to be with Pantoea ananatis strain BD 588 (97.4%) and Pantoea ananatis strain Pna 97-1 (97.3%). In the phylogenetic tree, the bacterium clearly related to the Pantoea lineage, as evidenced by the high bootstrap value. A BLAST search with 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium supported the API results thatthe isolate belongs to a species of Pantoea. Pathogenicity tests of this new Pantoea isolate were carried out with bacterial suspensions (approximately 1 × 106 CFU/ml) that were grown for 24 h in Luria-Bertani broth cultures. These were used to inoculate directly on the mycelia of P. eryngii that had been cultivated for 35 days in a plastic bottle. The water and broth were also inoculated to anotherset of bottles as a control experiment. Inoculated bottles were incubated in a cultivation room at 16 to 17°C with relative humidity between 80 and 95%. Early symptoms of the disease included a dark brown water drop that developed on hypha and primordium of the mushrooms after 5 to 7 days. After 13 days, water-soaked lesions developed on the stipes and pileus, and the normal growth of themushrooms was inhibited. An offensive odor then developed along with a severe soft rot that was similar to the disease symptoms observed under natural conditions. Mushrooms in control bottles did not develop symptoms. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by isolating bacteria from typical lesions from inoculated mushrooms that were identical to the inoculated strain in colony morphology and biochemicalcharacteristics. Pantoea ananatis was first reported as a pathogen of pineapple fruit causing brown rot (3). Several bacterial diseases, such as brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms by Pseudomonas tolaasii (2) and bacterial soft rot on winter mushroom by Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora, causing severe damage to mushrooms are known (1). However, no Pantoea sp. induced disease of edible mushroom hasbeen previously reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report of soft rot disease on P. eryngii caused by Pantoea sp.
References: (1) H. Okamoto et al. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65:460. 1999. (2) S. G. Paine. Ann. Appl. Biol. 5:206. 1919. (3) F. B. Serrano. Philipp. J. Sci. 36:271, 1928.
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