Kant - Deontologist | Critique of pureThe world of thing-in-themselves are as a photograph of the reality (our perceptions are representations)Phenomenal world: we can knowNoumenal world: we cannot know (free will)Universal ethics: don’t do what you don’t want to be done to you.Consequentialism: what matters are resultsDeontology: what matters is the act itself |
Fichte“you can accomplish greatthings” | German Idealism: “we cannot know what objects we will encounter, but we can know how we will encounter them”No things-in-themselves. The knowing subject (ego) creates the object (non-ego)Egotistical philosophy: in your universe you are godWe are conscious of ourselvesProactive: you must make things happenMoral will: force or power“what sort of philosophy you choose depends on what sortof person you are” |
Herder - Humanist“there’s only one for me” | Philology: study of language in written historical sources (starting point for Nietzsche)Language is the medium of philosophyNationalism: desire to have a nationPatriotism: national feelingEach individual is unique |
Schelling – Nature“man is at this best when he creates, because then he is most like nature” | prodigyWe don’tcreate nature, nature creates us and all of lifeInfluenced by Spinoza “Natura naturans” (nature creating nature)Strong emphasis of changeStrong influence on Romantic MovementSublime: the spiritual in nature and artPastoral: positive relation with nature |
Hegel - monist | Change is progress – historical dimensionGeist (mind/soul): historical process of realizing its own completeness andself-harmony (totality)Individual is not importantZeitgeist: we participate in the spirit of our timeHegelian dialectic (triads); an idea merges with its opposite (Master/Slave dialectic) Thesis + Antithesis = synthesis (new thesis) Situation + reaction = solution (new situation)Final triad: idea + nature = Geist / subjectivity + objectivity = ideaIn Hegel’s theory of opposites, can be internal orexternalAlienation: “what isn’t part of ourselves doesn’t bother us” (important for Sigmund Freud)Hegel’s disciple: Ludwig Feuerbach – gods are entirely human ideasA strong totally controlling nation is best * Right Hegelians – wanted super-powerful German nation * Left Hegelians – wanted communist |
Schopenhauer - monist | The world as will and representationHated HegelNoumenal world is energy orwillBlind will: when we do things we don’t understandSexual will is part of human willThis single Noumenal will manifests as the phenomenal worlds of separate physical objectsAtheist but other people are usIdea of absurdity of lifeRedemption in arts: huge effect on artists, writers, musiciansInterests in Easter philosophy and religion: circles of recurrence (things that happen over and over again) |Bentham – Freethinker (empiricism: sufficient evidence to believe)
“Utilitarian” | Helped found University College LondonHelped start great magazine the Westminster reviewEthics based in consequentialism“that action is best which procures the greatest happiness for the greatest number”The calculus of FelicityPanopticon: a prison where all the prisoners could be watched without knowing, startof “surveillance society” |
Mill – Libertarian (eliminating all laws that relate to self-harm)
“Utilitarian” | Raised experimentally by his father friend of BenthamNervous breakdownMember of English Parliament: proposed extending vote to womenIntellectual pleasures are better * Act utilitarianism (Bentham) – what is the consequence of this particular act? * Rule utilitarianism – what arethe consequences of the general rule or principle we can infer from this act?On Freedom: libertarian philosophy Individuals should aspire to autonomy and self-sufficiencyThe subject of Women: Equality of men and womenRepresentative democracy (to protect individual rights) |
Marx – Materialist (believer in physical reality)“Economy rules” | “religion is the opiate of the masses”Supports by...
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