Gender Development Social Theories

Páginas: 4 (766 palabras) Publicado: 9 de mayo de 2012
Gender Development:
Social Theories
Prepared by Ethel Cantu
Based on Gender: Psychological Perspectives, 3rd Ed
Linda Brannon, Allyn & Bacon 2002

Social Learning Theory
 Emphasizesnurture
– Contribution of the social environment to learning gender-related behaviors
 Based on operant conditioning
– Reinforcement increases gender appropriate behaviors
– Punishmentdecreases gender inappropriate behaviors
 Sees development as continuous

Social Learning Theory
 Adds observational learning
– Children use cognitive processes to choose appropriategender-related behaviors
– Observe wide variety of models: real & images
– Imitate behaviors of those they choose
 Power & prestige
 Similarity: more likely to imitate same-sex models

SocialLearning Theory
 Consequences of observed behavior
– Imitation more likely if observed behavior is rewarded
 Differential treatment by adults, esp parents encourages gender appropriate anddiscourages gender inappropriate behaviors
– Children develop gender knowledge & gender standards for own behavior

Social Learning Theory
 Learning through observation is cognitive
Performing is behavioral
 Whether behavior is performed depends on observed consequences & beliefs about gender appropriateness
 Critique is that children are portrayed as too passive

CognitiveDevelopmental Theory
 Children use active cognitive processes to acquire gender-related behaviors
 Based on Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
– Preoperational (2-4 yrs)
Transition (5-7 yrs)
– Concrete operational (7-12 yrs)
– Formal operational (12- adult)

Cognitive Developmental Theory
 Preoperational (2-4 yrs)
– Thinking is concrete, not logical, judgeson appearance
 Gender labeling
– Knows there are two sexes
– Applies labels to self & others, but inconsistent
– Uses cues such as dress, hair
– Can change sex if appearance is different...
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