Páginas: 8 (1938 palabras) Publicado: 17 de enero de 2011

Art History



Impressionism proved different ways of representations and along with other techniques, ended with the idea of “rules” for art.

I. Introduction
A. Background
B. Thesis Statement
II. Nineteenth Century
A. Revolutionary Spirit
B. Art in the nineteenth century
C.Best-known Schools
III. Impressionism
A. Origins
B. Revolution
a. Themes
b. Techniques
C. Paintings
IV. Photography
A. Influences on Impressionism
V. Other Impressionist Arts
A. Sculpture
B. Literature
C. Music
VI. Conclusion


Impressionism is one of the techniques developed during the revolutionary era ofthe second half of the nineteenth century; it caused a Revolution in times of revolution. People´s view of the world had to change because the world was changing. It was in Europeans countries basically that this new ideas were developing. The Western World and France, to be more specific, were dealing with powerful thoughts about freedom in every aspect of life.
Impressionism proved differentways of representations and along with other techniques, ended with the idea of “rules” for art.
During this period, the ideal of self-determination conducted by the French Revolution encouraged a revolutionary spirit across Europe.
The Communist Manifesto published in 1848 by Marx and Engels, promoted revolutions in important Europeans cities such as Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Venice, Milan,Parma and Rome. These revolts shared a common ideology: a belief in democracy, individual freedom and social awareness (Wood, Cole, and Gealt 235). During this time, France and England owned many slave colonies in America. With their desire to gain freedom and independence, along with the overthrown of dictatorships in Europe, these colonies were invaded with the ideas of equality and freedom aswell.

These rebellions also inspired artists of the time; they challenged the philosophy and principles of the academies. They were looking ways of breaking the conservative style and purposes of common institutions to create their own. Very few artists between 1850 and 1900 were trained in the academies and expose their work in the Salons (Wood, Cole, and Gealt 236).
Art became a debatedtopic in cultural circles; many critics supported the common values and norms while others sought change, new themes and approaches. Artists considered that histories and mythologies offered no inspiration; they started depicting nature, daily life, workers, and poor and oppressed people.
Many artists gathered in groups based on their interests and similarities. Some of the best-knowngroups using new techniques were: the Pre-Raphaelites, the Barbizon school, the Realists, the Impressionists and the Post-Impressionists. Also, for the first time in history, a significant number of women participated in art projects; Mary Cassatt is a fine example. She was an American painter who moved to Paris in her thirties and became influenced by the Impressionist Movement ("Historical Artists").“Summertime” (Cassatt, 1894)
Numerous artists, very well-known today, were excluded from the Salon because their works weren´t consider good enough to participate on the exhibitions. The only reason to explain why they were rejected is because their work was different; art was changing.
Théodore Rousseau, representative of the BarbizonSchool, was an important landscape painter. Francoise Daugbigny, Camille Corot and Jean-Francoise Millet were also from the Barbizon School. Gustave Courbet and Edouard Manet, who is considered one of the founders of modern art, were Realists. The Impressionists were: Camille Pissarro, Gustave Caillebotte, Mary Cassatt, Berthe Morisot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Jean-Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet and...
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