COURSE EXERCISE 1
Report written by:
Mª Inmaculada García Hernández
INCINERATION (1)“Incineration is a waste treatment technology that involves the combustion of
organic materials and/or substances.
Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are usuallydescribed as "thermal treatment".
Waste combustion is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders in using the energy generated fromincineration for a lot of years, in localized combined heat and power facilities electricity consumption and 13.7 % of the total domestic heat consumption in Denmark.
Figure 1. SYSAV incinerationplant in Malmö, Sweden capable of handling 25 metric
tons (28 short tons) per hour household waste. To the left of the main stack, a
new identical oven line is under construction (March 2007).
Theformation and abatement of NOx emissions from stationary sources (2)
A standardized approach to stationary combustion engines
Several features of NOx emissions are fairly special, and wetherefore start with a technical explanation of NOx formation and abatement in stationary industrial combustion systems. Diagram 1 shows the main steps for the conversion of fuel to heat and/or electricity.Each of these steps has the potential to affect NOx formation.
Diagram 1. Systemic approach to a “standard” combustion unit,
functional modules (2)2
The combustion operation usesfuel to produce heat or power. It requires an
oxidizing agent, commonly air. All other flows involved (flue gas, liquid effluent,
solid waste, energy losses) are non-desirable byproducts or lossesthat the market alone usually fails to limit.
NOx-reducing technologies and strategies (2)2
NOx emissions are formed through three main mechanisms: fuel, thermal, and
prompt NOx formation....
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