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Agriculture in Urban Planning
Generating Livelihoods and Food Security
Edited by Mark Redwood
International Development Research Centre
Ottawa Cairo . Dakar . Montevideo . Nairobi . New Delhi . Singapore
publishing for a sustainable future
First published in the UK and USA in2009 by Earthscan and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Copyright # International Development Research Centre 2009 All rights reserved ISBN: 978-1-84407-668-0 IDRC publishes an e-book edition (ISBN: 978-1-55250-427-7) For further information: International Development Research Centre PO Box 8500 Ottawa, ON K1G 3H9, Canada email@example.com/www.idrc.ca Typeset by 4word Ltd, BristolPrinted and bound in the UK by Cromwell Press, Trowbridge Cover design by Yvonne Booth For a full list of publications, please contact: Earthscan Dunstan House 14a St Cross St London EC1N 8XA, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7841 1930 Fax: +44 (0)20 7242 1474 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.earthscan.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan publishes in association with theInternational Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Agriculture in urban planning: generating livelihoods and food security edited by Mark Redwood p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-84407-668-0 (hardback) 1. Urban agriculture–Developing countries. 2.Sustainable development–Developing countries. I. Redwood, Mark. S494.5U72A42 2009 630.91730 2–dc22 2008023954
The paper used for this book is FSC-certiﬁed and totally chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship Council) is an international network to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.
List of Figures, Tables and Boxes Foreword Acknowledgements List of Acronyms andAbbreviations Introduction Mark Redwood Enter AGROPOLIS The Rise of Cities and City Farming Overview of this Book Conclusion References 1 Household Food Security Among Urban Farmers in Nairobi, Kenya Eunice Wambui Njogu Introduction Methodology Food Security Relationships between Variables Changes in Agriculture and Livestock Extension Services Conclusion and Recommendations AcknowledgementsNotes References Urban Compost: A Socio-economic and Agronomic Evaluation in Kumasi, Ghana Nikita S. Eriksen-Hamel and George Danso Introduction Objectives Methodology Research Findings Conclusions and Recommendations Acknowledgements Note References ix xiii xiv xvi 1 2 3 8 18 19 21 21 23 28 30 31 32 33 33 33
35 35 36 37 40 46 46 47 47
Agriculture in Urban Planning UrbanAgriculture as a Livelihood Strategy in Lima, Peru Luis Maldonado Villavicencio Introduction Methodology Conceptual Framework Research Findings Conclusion Acknowledgements Note References The Social and Economic Implications of Urban Agriculture on Food Security in Harare, Zimbabwe Charity Mutonodzo Introduction Objectives and Hypotheses Methods Research Findings Conclusions Acknowledgements Note ReferencesUrban Agriculture and Food Security in Lilongwe and Blantyre, Malawi David Dalison Mkwambisi Introduction Literature, Concepts and Objectives Research Methodology Results Discussion Conclusion and Policy Recommendations Acknowledgements Notes References An Analysis of the Quality of Wastewater Used to Irrigate Vegetables in Accra, Kumasi and Tamale, Ghana Philip Amoah Introduction Key ConceptsMethods Results and Discussion Conclusions and Recommendations Acknowledgements 49 49 50 51 53 70 70 70 70
73 73 74 75 80 88 89 89 89
91 91 92 93 95 99 100 101 101 101
105 105 106 107 111 120 121
Contents vii Notes References 7 Water Contamination and its Impact on Vegetable Production in the Rımac River, Peru ´ Henry Juarez Introduction Methods Research Findings and...