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Analytical Chemistry Theoretical and Metrological Fundamentals

K. Danzer

Analytical Chemistry
Theoretical and Metrological Fundamentals
With 138 Figures and 31 Tables

K. Danzer
Am Friedensberg 4 07745 Jena Germany e-mail:

Library of Congress Control Number 2006932265 ISBN-10 3-540-35988-5 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN-13 978-3-540-35988-3Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York DOI 10.1007/b103950 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in other ways, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permittedonly under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under German Copyright Law. Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Media © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 The use of general descriptive names, registered names,trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Product liability: The publishers cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information about dosage and application contained in this book. In every individual case the user must check such informationby consulting the relevant literature. Cover-Design: WMXDesign GmbH, Heidelberg Typesetting: PTP-Berlin Protago-TEX-Production GmbH, Germany ¨ Production: LE-TEX Jelonek, Schmidt & Vockler GbR, Leipzig, Germany Printed on acid-free paper 2/3141/YL - 5 4 3 2 1 0


Analytical chemistry can look back on a long history. In the course of its development, analytical chemistry hascontributed essentially to the progress of diverse ˇelds of science and technology. Signiˇcant progress in natural philosophy, chemistry and other disciplines has been founded on results and discoveries in analytical chemistry. Well known examples include Archimedes' principle, iatrochemistry, emergence and overcoming of phlogiston theory, basic chemical laws on stoichiometry and mass proportions as wellas the discoveries of elements and of nuclear ˇssion. As chemistry split into inorganic, organic and physical chemistry in the middle of the nineteenth century, the question occasionally arose as to whether analytical chemistry was likewise an autonomous ˇeld of chemistry. At the beginning of the twentieth century, analytical chemistry was established by Wilhelm Ostwald and other protagonists onthe basis of chemical and physicochemical laws and principles. In addition, analytical procedures and instruments spread into other chemical ˇelds. However, in the 1950s and 1960s a new generation of analysts opened their mind to ideas coming from other scientiˇc ˇelds dealing with measurements from other points of view such as information science, metrology, technometrics, etc. As a result, effortsmade towards the acceptance of analytical chemistry as an autonomous ˇeld of chemistry increased. Analysts in USA and Europe founded organisations and forums that focussed ideas and developments in progressive directions. In this way, not only were national and international societies formed but also regular conferences like Pittcon and Euroanalysis. In this connection the so-called Lindau circleshould be mentioned where analysts from Germany, Austria and Switzerland made public relevant fundamentals of analytical chemistry derived from statistics, information theory, system theory, signal theory, game theory, decision theory, metrology, etc. In parallel with this, such modern principles have been successfully applied in selected case studies, mainly by scientists from USA, UK, and...