Research & Education Association
THEY GIVE MAX FACTS FOR QUICK & EASY STUDY/REVIEW
THE AGE OF EXPLORATION (1500s)
A. LINE OF DEMARCATION – (1493) drawn by
Pope west of Cape Verde Islands dividing the “heathen world” into an eastern segment reserved for Portuguese conquest and a western section reserved for Spain B. TREATY OF TORDESILLAS – (1494) moved Line of Demarcation westwardallowing Portugal to claim Brazil while the rest of Western Hemisphere was reserved for Spain C. CONQUISTADORES – independent Spanish adventurers who spread Catholicism and attempted to gain wealth and power for their homeland 1. V. N. Balboa (1513) crossed isthmus of Panama and claimed Pacific Ocean for Spain 2. J. Ponce de Leon (1513) claimed Florida for Spain while searching for “fountain of youth”3. H. Cortes (1519) destroyed Aztec empire of Mexico 4. Cabeza de Vaca (1535-1536) explored Gulf Coast and told of “Seven Golden Cities of Cibola,” said to be a new El Dorado. This inspired: a. H. de Soto (1539-1541) explored Southeast and discovered Mississippi River b. F. V. de Coronado (1540-1542) explored parts of Southwest and Midwest and discovered Grand Canyon D. NEW SPAIN – ruled byviceroy appointed by the king 1. Encomiendas – estates given to conquistadores using Indian slaves 2. Hacienda system – milder version of encomienda system 3. Peninsulares – natives of Spain, highest social class 4. Creoles – those born in New World of Spanish parents, 2nd social class 5. St. Augustine – oldest city in North America E. FRENCH EXPLORATIONS – authorized in 1524 by King Francis I 1. G. DaVerrazzano (1524) explored East Coast of U.S. from Maine to North Carolina 2. J. Cartier (1534) began a series of explorations that gave France claim to area around St. Lawrence River F. BRITISH EXPLORATIONS – began in 1497 when Cabot became first European since the Vikings to reach North America 1. M. Frobisher (1576) sent by nobleman Gilbert to find a Northwest passage, explored northeasterncoast of Canada 2. Sir F. Drake (1579) claimed for Queen Elizabeth Pacific Coast area just north of modern San Francisco during his round-the-world expedition 3. Sir W. Raleigh (1584) named Virginia in honor of Queen Elizabeth I, sent group to settle Roanoke Island, which was found to be deserted in 1590 4. Virginia Dare (1587) first English child born in the Americas
b. Good relations withIndians c. Inadequate population d. Lack of support from France
B. NEW NETHERLANDS
1. H. Hudson searched for Northwest Passage (1609), discovered Hudson River 2. Trading posts established (1624) at New Amsterdam (Manhattan Island) 3. Characteristics: a. Patroon system – large estates granted to men of wealth who settled 50 or more families in North America as tenant farmers b. Weak government c.Many settlers from other European nations
9. New York and New Jersey – territory given to James, Duke of York, by Charles II, provided that he conquer it first from the Dutch (1664) a. New Jersey became separate royal colony (1702) b. Self-government granted to New York, then rescinded (1685) 10. Pennsylvania – organized as proprietary colony (1681) by W. Penn to provide haven for QuakersCOLONIAL AMERICA – SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
A. CULTURE – diverse, varied from region to region
1. New Englanders enjoyed longest life span, most stable society 2. New England Puritan communities stressed religion and family 3. Indentured servitude common in Chesapeake area 4. Slavery firmly established in Chesapeake and southern colonies
C. BRITISH COLONIES
1. Virginia – settled by Virginia Company ofLondon (joint stock company) a. Jamestown (1607) – first permanent English settlement in North America 1) Major ity died from starvation, disease, and Indian attacks 2) J. Smith saved colony with harsh rules b. J. Rolfe (1612) husband of Pocahontas, discovered superior strain of tobacco, a major cash crop from West Indies that could be grown in Virginia 2. Plymouth – settled by Pilgrims,...
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