Ap world history 36

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I. Asian Paths to Autonomy
A. India's quest for home rule
1. Indian National Congress and Muslim League
a. After WWI, both organizations dedicated to achieving independence
b. Indian nationalists inspired by Wilson's Fourteen Points and the Russian Revolution
c. Frustrated by Paris Peace settlement: no independence for colonies
d. British responded to nationalist movement with repressivemeasures
2. Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), leader of Indian nationalism
a. Raised as a well-to-do Hindu, studied law in London
b. Spent twenty-five years in South Africa, embraced tolerance and nonviolence
c. Developed technique of passive resistance, followed a simple life
d. Became political and spiritual leader, called the Mahatma ("Great Soul")
e. Opposed to caste system, especially theexclusion of untouchables
f. 1920-1922, led Non-Cooperation Movement; 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement
3. The India Act of 1937
a. 1919 British massacre at Amritsar killed 379 demonstrators, aroused public
b. Repression failed, so the British offered modified self-rule through the India Act
c. Unsuccessful because India's six hundred princes refused to support
d. Muslims would not cooperate,wanted an independent state
e. Great Depression worsened conflict between Hindus and Muslims
f. Muslims believed Hindus discriminated against them
g. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, head of the Muslim League, proposed two states, one of which would be Pakistan
B. China's search for order
1. The republic, after 1911
a. 1911 revolution did not establish a stable republic; China fell into warlords' ruleb. Through unequal treaties, foreign states still controlled economy of China
2. Growth of Chinese nationalism
a. Chinese intellectuals expected Paris Peace Conference to end treaty system
b. Instead, Paris treaties approved Japanese expansion into China
c. May Fourth Movement: Chinese youths and intellectuals opposed to imperialism
d. Some were attracted to Marxism and Leninism; CCPestablished in 1921
3. CCP (Chinese Communist Party) and Guomindang (The Nationalist Party)
a. CCP leader Mao Zedong advocated women's equality, socialism
b. Guomindang leader Sun Yatsen favored democracy and nationalism
c. Two parties formed alliance, assisted by the Soviet Union, against foreigners
4. Civil war after death of Sun Yatsen, 1925
a. Led by Jiang Jieshi, both parties launched NorthernExpedition to reunify China
b. Successful, Jiang then turned on his communist allies
c. 1934-1935, CCP retreated to Yan'an on the Long March, 6,215 miles
5. Mao emerged as the leader of CCP, developed Maoist ideology
C. Imperial and Imperialist Japan
1. Japan emerged from Great War as a world power
a. Participated in the League of Nations
b. Signed treaty with United States guaranteeingChina's integrity
2. Japanese economy boosted by war: sold munitions to Allies
a. Prosperity short-lived; economy slumped during Great Depression
b. Labor unrest, demands for social reforms
3. Political conflict emerged between internationalists, supporters of western-style capitalism, and nationalists, hostile to foreign influences
4. The Mukden incident, 1931, in Manchuria
a. Chineseunification threatened Japanese interests in Manchuria
b. Japanese troops destroyed tracks on Japanese railroad, claimed Chinese attack
c. Incident became pretext for Japanese attack against China
5. Military, acting without civilian authority, took all Manchuria by 1932
6. League of Nations called for withdrawal of Japanese troops and restoration of Chinese sovereignty; Japan responded by leavingthe League
7. The new militant Japanese national identity helped set the stage for global conflagration

II. Africa under colonial domination
A. Africa and the Great War
1. Many belligerents were colonial powers in Africa; nearly every colony took sides
2. German colonial administration faced combined colonial forces of Great Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal
a. Britain sought...
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