Félix Rubén García Sarmiento (January 18, 1867, Metapa, Matagalpa, Nicaragua – February 6, 1916, León, Nicaragua), known as Rubén Darío, son of Manuel García and Rosa Sarmiento, was a Nicaraguan poet who initiated the Spanish-American literary movement known as modernismo (modernism) that flourished at the end of the 19th century. Darío has had a great and lasting influence on20th-century Spanish literature and journalism. He has been praised as the "Prince of Castilian Letters" and undisputed father of the modernismo literary movement.
A precocious reader (according to his own testimony, he learned to read when he was three years old, he soon began to write his first verses: a sonnet written by him in 1879 is conserved, and he published for the first time in a newspaperwhen he was thirteen years old. The elegy, Una lagrima, which was published in the daily El Termometro (Rivas) on July 26, 1880. A little later he also collaborated in El Ensayo, a literary magazine in León, garnering attention as a "child poet". In these initial verses, according to Teodosio Fernández, his predominating influences were Spanish poets contemporary to José Zorrilla, Ramón de Campoamor,Gaspar Núñez de Arce and Ventura de la Vega. His writings of this time display a liberalism hostile to the excessive influence of the Roman Catholic Church, as documented in his essay, El jesuita, which was written in 1881. Regarding his political attitude, his most noteworthy influence was the Ecuadorian Juan Montalvo, whom he deliberately imitated in his first journalistic articles
AroundDecember 1881 he moved to the capital, Managua, at the request of some liberal politicians that had conceived the idea that, given his gift for poetry, he should be educated in Europe at the expense of the public treasury. However, the anti-clerical tone of his verses did not convince the president of congress, the conservative Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro, and it was resolved that he would study inthe Nicaraguan city of Granada, but Rubén opted to stay in Managua, where he continued his journalistic endeavour collaborating with the newspapers El Ferrocarril and El Porvenir de Nicaragua. In the capital, he fell in love with an eleven year old girl, Rosario Emelina Murillo, whom he wanted to marry. A little later, at the petition of his friends who wanted to delay his marriage plans, inAugust 1882, he embarked for El Salvador
After making a name for himself with love poems and stories, Darío left Nicaragua for Chile in 1886, and disembarked in Valparaiso on June 23, 1886. In Chile he stayed with Poirier and a poet by the name of Eduardo de la Barra. Together they co-authored a sentimental novel titled Emelina, with which they entered in a literary contest . It was because of hisfriendship with Poirier that Darío was able to obtain a job in the newspaper La Época, in Santiago on July 1886.
Soon after he published his first piece, Abrojos, in March 1887. He lived in Valparaiso for several months until September 1887 in Valparaiso where he participated in several literary contests. In the month of July 1888, Azul, the key literary work of the modernist revolution that hadjust begun, was published in Valparaiso.
The newly attained fame allowed Darío to obtain the position of newspaper correspondent for La Nación of Buenos Aires, which was at the time the most heavily circulated periodical in Hispanic America. A little after sending his first article to La Nacion, he set off on a trip back to Nicaragua. During a brief stop in Lima he met the writer Ricardo Palma. Hearrived at the port in Corinto on March 7, 1889. In León, he was received as a guest of honor, but his stay in Nicaragua was brief, and he moved to San Salvador where he was named director of the periodical La Unión which was in favor of creating a unified Central American state. In San Salvador, he was married by law to Rafaela Contreras, daughter of a famous Honduran orator, Álvaro Contreras,...