Brucellosis is a disease caused by gender antropozoonóticabrucella. Its distribution is worldwide and although it was discovered more than one hundred years, remains a major problem of health and economic type. The infection most likely was introduced to Mexico with the Spanish conquest and at least since the last century, when the disease was recognized in our country, hasremained an endemic disease. Although it has an effective treatment has not been possible to eradicate and often not diagnosed early, which increases the morbidity of the disease.
The purpose of this article is to review epidemiological and immunological aspects of the disease in animals, as well asclinical and diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives which currently has the purpose toremind the doctor who is a current disease .
The origin of human brucellosis is lost in history, although the first clinical report attributed to Marston in 1859. The etiologic agent was discovered in the late nineteenth century by Sir David Bruce, who was sent to investigate the island of Malta (Mediterranean Fever Commission) the cause of a febrile illness that had killed a considerablenumber of soldiers. The germ was identified in 1887 in the spleens of four soldiers who died and was called Micrococcus mellitus. In 1896 Bang, a Danish veterinarian discovered the causative agent of bovine abortion in the future was called B. abortus and 1905 documented the role Themistokles Zammit who had goats and consumption of their products as a source of infection for acquiring the disease.
In1914 Traum a microorganism isolated in aborted fetuses of pigs called B. suis. In 1920 the American bacteriologist Alice Evans confirmed the similarity of the isolates by Bruce, Bang and Traum and suggested designating the causative agent by the name of Brucella, in honor of Sir David Bruce. Subsequently continued to uncover different species of Brucella and Buddle in 1956 and identified B.Boyce ovis in sheep in 1957 Stoenner and Lackman isolate B. In 1968 neotomae Carmicheal and discover B. BrunerRecently discovered two new species called B. Brucellapinnipediae and B. Cetacea in whales.
In our country the first description of the disease was made in 1905 and 1906 by doctors and Carvajal Valenzuela. In 1921 Dr. Manuel Vergara describes cases of brucellosis in the city of Puebla and in1938 the infection became so important to be organized in the state of Coahuila the First National Congress of Brucellosis. Dr. Maximiliano Ruiz Castañeda made important contributions in the diagnosis of brucellosis, generating a growing media for many years was the best method to identify the bacteria.
The epidemiology of brucellosis is complex and ve had variations over time. Itis estimated that annually in the world more than 500,000 new cases, representing one of the most common zoonosis.
In our country in the year of 2007 saw a total of 2.057 cases of brucellosis in which the largest number was found in Nuevo Leon, Jalisco and Guanajuato, 90% of cases produced by B. melitensis. Concerned that only 5.468 cases could determine the origin of the infection and that 80%was consumption of cheese and milk "angry."
The modes of transmission to humans is mainly from ingestion of un pasteurized animal, direct contact with an infected animal or by inhaling particles. The most common route of transmission is through consumption of unpasteurized products, mainly milk, cheese, butter and ice cream.
Also abattoir workers, veterinarians, farmers and laboratory workersare at high risk for infection. In recent years the Brucella has been considered as a biological weapon, it is thought that the environmental release of particles containing the bacteria produce 82.500 new cases of brucellosis. Other less common routes of transmission are through blood transfusions and has been proposed that could be transmitted through sex and milk.