Geert Hofstede™ Cultural Dimensions
Prof. Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. Geert Hofstede analyzed a large data base of employee values scores collected by IBM between 1967 and 1973covering more than 70 countries, from which he first used the 40 largest only and afterwards extended the analysis to 50 countries and 3 regions. In the editions of GH's work since 2001, scores are listed for 74 countries and regions, partly based on replications and extensions of the IBM study on different international populations. Subsequent studies validating the earlier results have includedcommercial airline pilots and students in 23 countries, civil service managers in 14 counties, 'up-market' consumers in 15 countries and 'elites' in 19 countries. From the initial results, and later additions, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary Dimensions to assist in differentiating cultures: Power Distance - PDI, Individualism - IDV, Masculinity - MAS, and Uncertainty AvoidanceUAI. Geert Hofstede added a fifth Dimension after conducting an additional international study with a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. That Dimension, based on Confucian dynamism, is Long-Term Orientation - LTO and was applied to 23 countries. These five Hofstede Dimensions can also be found to correlate with other country, cultural, and religious paradigms.Guatemala
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* Description for each of Hofstede's Dimensions listed below
Guatemala is similar to many Latin American countries when analyzing Hofstede's Dimensions (see Latin America Hofstede Graph below). Guatemala has the highest Uncertainty Avoidance(UAI) Hofstede Dimension ranking of all Latin countries at 101, indicating the society’s extremely low level of tolerance for uncertainty. In an effort to minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty, strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented. The ultimate goal of this population is to control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected. As a result ofthis high Uncertainty Avoidance characteristic, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse. Guatemala also is tied with Panama for the highest Power Distance (PDI) ranking among Latin countries with a 95, compared to an average of 70. This is indicative of a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. This condition is not necessarily subverted uponthe population, but rather accepted by the culture as a whole.
* Average rankings of all Hofstede Latin Countries
Guatemala has the lowest Individualism (IDV) ranking at 6, compared to other Latin countries (average 21). The score on this Dimension indicates the society is Collectivist as compared to Individualist. This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be thata family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. Of special note is that Guatemala has the largest divergence of Power Distance (PDI) to Individualism (IDV) of any country...