Conservation and the genetics of populations

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Conservation and the Genetics of Populations

CONSERVATION AND THE GENETICS OF POPULATIONS

Fred W. Allendorf University of Montana and Victoria University of Wellington and Gordon Luikart Université Joseph Fourier, CNRS and University of Montana With illustrations by Agostinho Antunes

© 2007 by Blackwell Publishing BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Fred W. Allendorf and Gordon Luikart to be identified as the Authors of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1 2007

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Allendorf, Frederick William. Conservation and the genetics of populations / Fred W. Allendorfand Gordon Luikart. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-2145-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-2145-9 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Biological diversity conservation. 2. Population genetics. 3. Evolutionary genetics. I. Luikart, Gordon. II. Title. QH75.A42 2006 576.5′8— dc22 2006001707 A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10.5/12.5pt Dante by Graphicraft Limited,Hong Kong Printed and bound in UK by TJ International, Padstow The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditationstandards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com Chapter opening images remain copyright of Agostinho Antunes

Contents

Authors of Guest Boxes, xi Preface, xiii List of Symbols, xvi PART I: INTRODUCTION 1 Introduction, 3 1.1 Genetics and conservation, 4 1.2 What should we conserve?, 5 1.3 How should we conserve biodiversity?, 10 1.4Applications of genetics to conservation, 11 Guest Box 1 by L. S. Mills and M. E. Soulé: The role of genetics in conservation, 13 2 Phenotypic Variation in Natural Populations, 15 2.1 Color pattern, 18 2.2 Morphology, 20 2.3 Behavior, 23 2.4 Differences among populations, 26 Guest Box 2 by C. J. Foote: Looks can be deceiving: countergradient variation in secondary sexual color in sympatric morphs ofsockeye salmon, 29 3 Genetic Variation in Natural Populations: Chromosomes and Proteins, 33 3.1 Chromosomes, 35 3.2 Protein electrophoresis, 47 3.3 Genetic variation within natural populations, 51 3.4 Genetic divergence among populations, 52 3.5 Strengths and limitations of protein electrophoresis, 54 Guest Box 3 by A. Young and B. G. Murray: Management implications of polyploidy in a cytologicallycomplex self-incompatible herb, 55

vi

CONTENTS

4 Genetic Variation in Natural Populations: DNA, 63 4.1 Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA, 64 4.2 Single copy nuclear loci, 69 4.3 Multilocus techniques, 74 4.4 Sex-linked markers, 77 4.5 DNA sequences, 78 4.6 Additional techniques and the future, 78 4.7 Genetic variation in natural populations, 81 Guest Box 4 by N. N. FitzSimmons: Multiplemarkers uncover marine turtle behavior, 82 PART II: MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 5 Random Mating Populations: Hardy–Weinberg Principle, 93 5.1 The Hardy–Weinberg principle, 94 5.2 Hardy–Weinberg proportions, 97 5.3 Testing for Hardy–Weinberg proportions, 99 5.4 Estimation of allele frequencies, 105 5.5 Sex-linked loci, 108 5.6 Estimation of genetic variation, 110 Guest Box 5 by V. Castric...
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