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Seasonal variations in chemical composition and in vitro biological effects of ﬁne PM from Milan
Maria Grazia Perrone a,*, Maurizio Gualtieri a, Luca Ferrero a, Claudia Lo Porto a, Roberto Udisti b, Ezio Bolzacchini a, Marina Camatini a
a bPOLARIS Research Center, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, DISAT, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milan, Italy Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto F.no, Florence, Italy
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Fine particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) was collected in Milan over the summer (August–September) andwinter (January–March) seasons of 2007/2008. Particles were analyzed for their chemical composition (inorganic ions, elements and PAHs) and the effects produced on the human lung carcinoma epithelial cell line A549. In vitro tests were performed to assess cell viability with MTT assay, cytokine release (IL-6 and IL-8) with ELISA, and DNA damage with COMET assay. Results were investigated by bivariateanalysis and multivariate data analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to investigate the relationship between PM chemical composition and the biological effects produced by cell exposure to 12 lg cmÀ2. The different seasonal chemical composition of PM showed to inﬂuence some biological properties. Summer PM samples had a high mass contribution of SO¼ (13 ± 2%) and were enriched in some ele4ments, like Al, As, Cr, Cu, and Zn, compared to winter PM samples. Cell viability reduction was two times higher for summer PM samples in comparison with winter ones (27 ± 5% and 14 ± 5%, respectively), and the highest correlation coefﬁcients between cell viability reduction and single chemical components were with As (R2 = 0.57) and SO¼ (R2 = 0.47). 4 PM1 affected cell viability reduction andinduced IL-8 release, and these events were interrelated 2 (R = 0.95), and apparently connected with the same chemical compounds. PM2.5 fraction, which was enriched in Ca++ and Mg++ (from soil dust), and Al, Fe, Zn, Ba Mn, produced cell viability reduction and DNA damage (R2 = 0.73). Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Received 16 July 2009 Received in revised form 28December 2009 Accepted 30 December 2009 Available online 2 February 2010 Keywords: PM1 PM2.5 Chemical composition Health effects Cytotoxicity
1. Introduction Exposure to ﬁne particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted air has been associated with harmful health effects on the worldwide population (Pope and Dockery, 2006). The data in the literature are mainly based on the relationship between PMatmospheric concentration and health effects. Although epidemiological studies indicate that signiﬁcant health effects are associated with particle exposure, the magnitude of these effects varies with location (Samet et al., 2000; Gavett et al., 2003) and seasons (Becker et al., 2005; Hetland et al., 2005; Peng et al., 2005). The toxicity of PM may depend on the aerodynamic size fraction and on the PMemission source. Fine and ultraﬁne PM are more strongly associated with increased mortality compared to coarse particles (Schwartz et al., 1999). Epidemiological studies have indi-
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 02 64482814; fax: +39 02 64482839. E-mail address: email@example.com (M.G. Perrone). 0045-6535/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.12.071
cated that ﬁne particles may be more toxic because of the large surface area available for biogenic interactions with lung cells (Utell and Frampton, 2000). On the other hand, it has been suggested that ﬁne particles may be more toxic because these particles are derived from speciﬁc emission sources (e.g. industrial, trafﬁc, etc.) (Klemm et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2001;...