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GRAMMAR
BOOK
(Edgard V. Soto)

INDEX
History of English
Definite article (the)
Indefinite article (a)
Nouns
Common nouns
Proper nouns
Collective nouns
Abstract nouns
Adjectives
Quality adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives
Distributive adjectives
Interrogative adjectives
Verbs
Pronouns
Possessive pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns
Distributive pronouns
Interrogative pronounsPersonal pronouns
Subject pronouns
Object pronouns
Reflexive pronouns
Adverbs
Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of places
Adverbs of time
Adverbs of frequency
Adverbs of degree
Interrogative adverbs
Relative adverbs
Prepositions
Prepositions of time
Prepositions of movement
Prepositions of places
Phrasal verbs
Conjunctions
Coordinating conjunctions
Subordinating conjunctions
VerbsRegular verbs
Irregular verbs
Transitive and intransitive
Auxiliary verbs
Infinitive verbs
Modals
Tenses (present, past)
Conditionals
Mixed conditionals
Passive voice
Reported speech
Tag questions
Main clauses
Type of subjects
Complex sentences
Subjunctives
Causatives
Vocabulary
(alphabet, colors, numbers, seasons, days of the week, months, holly days, animals, fruits, vegetables,food

DEDICATED TO:
This book is dedicated to all of you who study English, because I know that when we are learning a new language we need as much help as we can and I want this book to be a tool that can help you in some way.
This book is also dedicated to Maria (mom) y Efrain (dad) for everything they have done for me.

History of the English Language
A short history of the origins anddevelopment of English
The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushedwest and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from England and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England and English are derived.

This map shows us the Germanic invaders that entered Britain on the east and south coasts in the 5th century.

Old English (450-1100 AD)

Part of Beowulf, a poem written in Old English.|
The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water, for example,derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100.

Middle English (1100-1500)

An example of Middle English by Chaucer. |
In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling andbusiness classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native Englishspeakers to understand today.

Modern English
Early Modern English (1500-1800)
Hamlet's famous "To be, or not to be" lines, written in Early Modern English by Shakespeare. |
Towards the end of Middle English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great Vowel Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century the British had contact with many...
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