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German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy in the German language or (2) philosophy by Germans, has been extremely diverse, and central to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from Leibniz through Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Marx, Nietzsche, Heidegger and Wittgenstein to contemporary philosophers. Although aDanish philosopher, Søren Kierkegaard is frequently included in surveys of German (or Germanic) philosophy due to his extensive engagement with German thinkers.[1][2][3][4]

|Contents [hide] |
|1 History |
|1.1 17th century|
|1.1.1 Leibniz |
|1.2 18th century |
|1.2.1 Wolff |
|1.2.2 Kant|
|1.3 19th century |
|1.3.1 German Idealism |
|1.3.2 Schopenhauer |
|1.3.3 Karl Marx and the Young Hegelians|
|1.3.4 Neo-Kantianism |
|1.3.5 Nietzsche |
|1.4 20th century |
|1.4.1 Frege, Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle |
|1.4.2Phenomenology |
|1.4.3 Hermeneutics |
|1.4.4 The Frankfurt School |
|1.4.5 Contemporary analytic philosophy |
|2 See also|
|3 References |
|4 External links |


17th century
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was both a philosopher and amathematician who wrote primarily in Latin and French. Leibniz, along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza, was one of the three great 17th Century advocates of rationalism. The work of Leibniz also anticipated modern logic and analytic philosophy, but his philosophy also looks back to the scholastic tradition, in which conclusions are produced by applying reason to first principles or a prioridefinitions rather than to empirical evidence.

Leibniz is noted for his optimism - his Théodicée[5] tries to justify the apparent imperfections of the world by claiming that it is optimal among all possible worlds. It must be the best possible and most balanced world, because it was created by an all powerful and all knowing God, who would not choose to create an imperfect world if a better worldcould be known to him or possible to exist. In effect, apparent flaws that can be identified in this world must exist in every possible world, because otherwise God would have chosen to create the world that excluded those flaws.

Leibniz is also known for his theory of monads, as exposited in Monadologie. Monads are to the metaphysical realm what atoms are to the physical/phenomenal.[citation...
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