Global warming is the term used to describe a gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and its oceans, a change that is believed to be permanently changing the Earth’s climate forever, While many view the effects of global warming to be more substantial and more rapidly occurring than others do, the scientific consensus on climatic changes related toglobal warming is that the average temperature of the Earth has risen between 0.4 and 0.8 °C over the past 100 years. The increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, agriculture, and other human activities, are believed to be the primary sources of the global warming that has occurred over the past 50 years. After years ofscientific wrangling over the existence of global warming, experts are now in agreement that the problem presents a major risk for the future of our planet.
Nowadays, global warming is one of the most well-known problems between countries´ governments. However, most people are not concerned about this dramatic fact. The average global temperature is 0.6 degrees Celsius higher than atthe beginning of the 20th century. As a result, this change in temperature becomes the largest rise of any century over the last 1000 years. Furthermore, the year 2000 was the warmest year since 1860 followed by 1998, 1997, 1995, 1990 and 1999 .
Moreover, the scientists believe that the increase in the quantities of greenhouse gases is accompanied by an overall rise in global temperature. Thesegases trap heat in the atmosphere producing large dangerous concentrations for the Earth, which is responsible of the sharp increase in global temperature. This increase is called global warming.
First of all, the Industrial Revolution, which started about 250 years ago, has resulted in a growth in need of fossil fuels. When these fossil fuels are burning, they release carbon dioxide, which isthe most common greenhouse gas. In consequence, the concentration of this gas in the atmosphere causes an increase in global temperatures, which have led to the creation of the following treaty .
The United Nations Frame work Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) was created in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro in order to reduce the global greenhouse gas emissions. Although the treaty was animportant event aimed at stopping the increase of temperatures, there were not mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions. In consequence, the treaty was updated and became the current Kyoto protocol, which was adopted by the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. According to the United Nations Environment Programme ´The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce theircollective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990´ The target is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases, which are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs
Besides, the national limitations differ in each of the western countries: ‘from 8% reductions for the European Union, 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, andpermitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland’
In contrast, China, India, and other developing countries were not included in any numerical limitation of the Kyoto Protocol because they were not the main contributors to the greenhouse gas emissions during the industrialization period that caused, according to many scientists, today’s climate change.
However, even if developingcountries do not have any commitments to reduce gas emissions, they share the global aim of decreasing pollution
Secondly, the consequences in a climate change will affect human beings, animals, plants and ecosystems, as well as increase natural catastrophes and species extinction. According to the IPPC (International Plan Protection Convention) the temperature increase is occurring rapidly and...