Historia grecia

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Although Metaxas managed to create a credible simulation of what can be considered a fascist regime, did nothing that would suggest a departure from the traditional orientation to Great Britain in foreign policy. As happened in all areas of southeast Europe, the importance of Germany in the economic field was increasing in the second half of the thirties, but in Greece it was not accompanied bygreater political influence. In fact, Metaxas proposed in 1938 a formal treaty of alliance with Britain, although British, fearing new commitments declined. However, after the Italian occupation of Albania in April 1939, Britain and France offered to Greece guarantee that, if resisted foreign aggression, maintain its territorial integrity

Metaxas, when outbreak of World War II in September 1939,intended to keep the country away from the conflict and at the same time continue a policy of friendly neutrality toward Britain. Mussolini, however, was anxious to prove its Axis ally, Hitler, that he could also get spectacular victories, and he chose the easy target that represented Greece, or when least that was what he believed. In August 1940, an Italian submarine torpedoed the cruiser"Elli". Two months later, on the morning from the October 28, 1940, the Italian envoy in Athens reported a humiliating ultimatum Metaxas, which was immediately rejected. Within hours, Italian troops crossed the Greco-Albanian border and Greece entered the war. To stand up to the Italian attitude intimidatioria, Metaxas gained popular support. Soon, the Greek soldiers, led by the great wave of nationalexcitement, launched a counterattack. In a few days succeeded in forcing the invaders to retreat to Albanian territory. When winter came the military advance was halted.
Britain, which at this stage of the war had no more active partners than Greece, provided a limited air support. But Metaxas refused the offer which Churchill did of sending a support force for fear of provoking the wrath ofHitler, because she still hoped to avoid further entanglement in the war if Germany managed to mediate between Greece and Italy.

At Metaxas's death in late January 1941, his successor, Alexandros Koryzis, had no such inhibitions. Great Britain sent to Greece an expeditionary force composed mainly of Australian and New Zealand soldiers. Unfortunately, a misunderstanding between the authorities ofboth countries decisively delayed the concentrracion troops in western Macedonia, surely that would have allowed action to stop the German invasion, every day closer. This shall be opened with devastating effectiveness through Yugoslavia and Bulgaria on April 6, 1941, at a time of war in which Hitler was eager to secure a flank in the Balkans from which to prepare the invasion of the Soviet UnionThe Greco-British contingent was wiped out quickly and, in the chaos that followed the defeat, the Prime Minister killed himself. His successor was Emanuel Tsuderos, a banker known for his opposition to the regime of Metaxas. Three days before the fall of Athens, 23 April, General Tsolakoglu, without government authorization, negotiated an armistice with the Germans. However, most of the BritishExpeditionary Force was evacuated successfully and George II, his government and a group of Greek soldiers fled to Crete, where they joined to British contingent, large but poorly equipped, trying to defend the island. The intention was to consolidate the control over the island as a base from which to launch air strikes against the Romanian oil fields, a vital source of German oil supplies.However, despite from the fact that the German plans were known for having been intercepted by radio the key "Enigma", the island fell in late May, after a fierce battle between the defense forces and the Germans, who attacked on all by air. The King and the Government, the symbols of constitutional legitimacy, fled to the Middle East with the contingent of the armed forces of the country. In Greece,...
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