How languages are learned

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HOW LANGUAGES ARE LEARNED
P.M.Lightbown, N.Spada

Chapter 1 will not be considered as it deals with first language acquisition.

2 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO EXPLAINING
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING(pg 30 –46)

Considerations in second language learning (pg 30-35): 30• • • • • • • • • • • • Personal characteristics in Difference in the conditions for learning Existence of a first languageCognitive maturity MetaMeta-linguistic awareness Cultural knowledge Anxiety, fear OR NERVOUSNESS Learning environment Time Corrective feedback Type of language exposition Age

LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONINFORMAL LEARNING CONDITIONS

keep this in mind: mind

• “Younger learners in an informal language learning environment are allowed to be silent until they are ready to speak” … (pg 33)

•Modified input : child directed speech or teacher talk Adjustments Adjustments done to speaking in order to help learners understand (pg 34)

• Error correction is limited to correction of meaning orvocabulary choice, grammar and pronunciation are overlooked (pg 34)
Errors are considered as an integral part of the learning process

LINGUISTIC THEORIES

In many ways theories that account forsecond language learning are closely related to those proposed for first language learning. Basically because a second language is learnt following the same process of a first language learning.learning. Some theories however, give primary importance to learners innate characteristics; other to the role of environment and other tend to integrate both aspects seeking to unsolve the mysteries oflanguage learning.

I.

35Behaviourism (pg 35-36) • Imitation • Practice Practice • Reinforcement • Habit formation • Contrastive analysis hypothesis: learner’s whose first language is similar to thetarget language will learn easily .Errors therefore can be predicted.

II.

36Innatism (pg 36-37) Noam Chomsky • Universal grammar: innate knowledge of grammar rules knowledge applied to all...
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