Humanism

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Humanism in Language Teaching
A critical perspective

Earl W. Stevick

Oxford University Press 1990

Oxford University Press Walton Street,Oxford OX26DP
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ISBN 0 19 437161 1 1 © Oxford University Press 1990 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, orotherwise. without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. This book is sold subject to the condition that itshall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out. or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposedon the subsequent purchaser. Printed in Great Britain by Thomson Litho, East Kilbride, Scotland.

Acknowledgements
Thepublishers would like to thank the following for their permission to use copyright material: Academic Press Ltd., a subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, and E. Perecman, for extracts from ‘Spontaneous translation and language mixing in a polyglot aphasic’ by E. Perecman published in Brain and Language 1984, Vol. 23; Cambridge University Press for extracts from Communicating Naturally in a SecondLanguage by Wilga M. Rivers, CUP 1983, and Images and Options in the Language Classroom by E.W. Stevick, CUP 1986; Educational Solutions Inc., for extracts from The Adolescent and His Self(c) 1962 by C. Gattegno, In the Beginning There Were No Words: The Universe of Babies (c) 1976 by C. Gattegno, The Common Sense of Teaching Foreign Languages (c) 1976 by C. Gattegno, and On Being Freer (c) 1988by C. Gattegno; Faber and Faber Ltd., and Random House Inc., for an extract from ‘Horae Canonicae: vespers’ from Selected Poems of W.H. Auden (c) 1955 W.H. Auden; Houghton Mifflin & Co. for an extract from Becoming a Person by Carl Rogers (c) 1961 by Houghton Mifflin & Co.; Newbury House Publishers, a division of Harper & Row Publishers Inc., for a short extract from Methods that Work by J. Ollerand P. Richard-Amato (c) 1983 by Newbury House Publishers, and an extract from Memory, Meaning and Method by E.W. Stevick (c) 1976 by Newbury House Publishers; PrenticeHall Publishers for an extract from Principles of Language Learning and Language Teaching by H.D. Brown (c) by Prentice-Hall: R.C. Roberts for extracts from his article ‘Therapy for the Saints’ published in Christianity Today, Vol.29, no. 16, 1985; Sheed and Ward Inc., for extracts from Counseling and Psychotherapy: the Pursuit of Values by Charles A. Curran (c) 1968 by Sheed and Ward Inc.; Sir Karl Popper for extracts from his book Unended Quest, 1974 Glasgow: Collins.

At the author’s request, the royalties from this book are being divided between TESOL and IATEFL.

Contents
Author and series editor Foreword Preface1 3 4

1

Karl Popper and the power of words
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Why start with Popper? Popper’s scientific approach Comments on Popper’s approach Language teaching in Popper’s worlds 7 8 13 19 21 21 21 24 28 31 35 35 39 45 54 55 55 62 68

2 Humanism
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 A semantic thicket ‘Humanism’ outside language education ‘Humanism’ in the writings of language teachers A tentative map ofthe humanisms The ‘stance of despair’, and three remedies for it

3

Using words: metaphor
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Metaphor: what it is and how it works Three general metaphors in the study of language Four ‘humanistic’ metaphors Summary

4

Other aspects of the discussion of ‘humanism’
4. I Matters of form 4.2 Matters of substance 4.3 Summary

5

The ‘humanism’of Charles A. Curran
5.1...
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