Emily S. Davidson and William Smith
Davidson , Emily S, and Smith, William P . Imitation , social comparison , and self-reward
Child development 1982, 53, 928-932. The influence of ability differences on children’s imitation of modeled standards of self-reward was examined .fifth and sixth-grade children sawmodels perform on a pursuit-rotor apparatus and performed themselves . Children saw one of three models: adult-superior ,peer-equal , or kindergartner-inferior. The children then saw model self-reward using either a stringent or a lenient standard. Children who saw an adult-superior model lowered their standards children who saw peer matched the modeled standard , and children who saw and inferiorraised their standards.
Research of imitation and self-reward has been guided by two rather different conceptions. The firs characterized by the work of mischel and liebert (1967)assumes that children wan has much reward as they can get but also are aware social rules and desire to perform accordingly a model provides examples of rules appropriate to a given situation : strict criteria forself-reward demonstrated by a model , will result in less self-reward by the observer than will a modeled lenient criterion. Often, however a leniency effect had been observed. Though influenced by the models standard. A child will reward himself or herself more than the model himself regardless of model criterion such and effect is not dealt with systematically by researchers usingthis approach but is generally viewed as self-aggrandizing rule violation .however , in the mischel and liebert study, as well as others , this leniency may involve , that people of different abilities. (i.e. Children and adults) may employ different standards of self-reward.
This interpretation is consistent with a second conception, characterized primarily by the work of bandura (1997) in theimitation and self-reward. This approach suggests that self-reward standards may be determined by a social comparison norm which defines good performance (rewardable performance) has performance appropriate to ones ability level. In an unfamiliar situation, while a child may by uncertain about the particular level of performance which should by rewarded, he is aware of( imports)a metaruleconcerning socially relative reward .this metarule , according to bandura , is that one should reward oneself in away similar to ability-similar models .However , the social comparison view of performance standards does not necessarily imply and observers complete rejection of the standards demonstrated by a model whose ability is different .Thibaut and Kelley (1959) note that level of aspirationtends and below the level of ability-superior others. The research with adults which examines the evaluation of others performances (e.g . weiner & kluka 1970) as well as self-evaluation of performance suggest that ability level is taken into account in the evaluation of achievement –related behavior .
Much of the existing research on self-reward and imitation among children is consistentwith this relative ability position. Unfortunately, there are few studies which permit systematic examination of the social comparison model for self-reward. Further, the experiment most commonly cited (banbura & whalen 1966 ) has ambiguous import , for several reasons .First although the model was always an adult , witch may suggests superiority independent of performance . Thus , objects mightnot raise their standards relative to an inferior adult .
Imitación, la comparación social y la auto-recompensa
Emily S. Smith y William Davidson
La Universidad de Vanderbilt
Davidson, Emily S, y Smith, P. William. Imitación, la comparación social y la auto-recompensa
Desarrollo del niño de 1982, 53, 928-932. La influencia de las diferencias de habilidad en la...