April 29, 2010.
Immigration to the North
Mexico is a country which has been invaded many times for foreign countries, such as United States. In the 1900, during the regime of Porfirio Diaz, there was a system called debt peonage which was among the people who didn’t have their own lands. Following this, land owners created stores which provided food and supplies topeon families on debt, so people could pay later. Subsequently, peon families were accumulating debts and at a certain point, they couldn’t afford anymore the debts. So, they decided to run away because the lack of money. Poverty was a push to make people migrate to other states in the country, such Tamaulipas, Coahuila and Chihuahua (Corwin, p.38-40). “The development of railroads, mining, andranching, spurred by American and other foreign investors…crated a rising migrant labor at high wages [in these states]…” (Corwin, p.40). The Joads, such as other Mexican families, in the book The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, had to migrate because they hadn’t anything in order to survive. They were also pushed by people who were saying that California was a place to get a better way ofliving, so they made their way to that state.
In Mexico , such in the United States, people had to move because of their poverty conditions. For Mexicans, the jobs they had weren’t enough to make money to support their families. So they decided to immigrate to the United States (Corwin, p.44-45). “The immigrant of interest is the one who has…appeared in the field…, leaving his ancestral home andcallings, and ready to venture almost anywhere in search for job”(Corwin, p.44). The World War I in United States was an opportunity for Mexicans to enter into the country as work labors (Corwin, p.52). In this period, California was facing an increase of commercial farms, so they needed people to work in the fields. The new jobs were a call to make Mexicans join to the “agriculture’s appetite forlarge quantities of low cost labor for short, seasonal periods…” (Selvin, p.58) So often, immigrants were seen walking by the borders with their sombreros (hat) and sandals, basically, with Indian clothes in their pursuit of a better living. In order to get to the border, many people had to sell their belongings or borrowed the money to buy their tickets to El Paso, Texas, which was one of themain arriving points for labor workers (Corwin, p.43).
By the 1942, came up the Bracero program. Such program was set up by the U.S. and Mexican governments in order to control the hiring of Mexicans by U.S growers. This was a way to bring Mexicans to the U.S country legally (Meister, p.71). “ [The] bracero contracting had risen from some 52,000 in 1943 to over 190,000” (Corwin, p.54). Some of thehired workers, who were trained by employers, were kept as permanent workers on immigrant visas. People trained had more opportunities to stay in the country legally. Therefore, braceros started to bring their families from Mexico (Corwin, p.54). This program was an opening to the agricultural industry. More than four million of farm laborers became important to the U.S economy because thesepeople had experience as farm laborers. These people were able to realize this kind of job because that was their way of living in Mexico. When Mexican farmers heard about the Bracero Program, they left their families hoping they were going to find better jobs and earn more money in the neighboring country (Merentes).Also, they were told that they were going to have good wages, living conditions,travel, and place to live, guaranteed (Selvin, p. 60). The bracero contracts were handled by independent associations. The contracts were written in English, so Mexicans weren’t able to know what the conditions and rights they were going to have in their job places. The braceros had the chance to return to their country if they had an emergency only with their boss permission (Merentes). Also, they...