Indonecia

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Indonesia

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia) is an islandcountry located between Southeast Asia and Oceania. The Indonesian archipelago comprises about 17,508 islands, where more than 237 million people, making Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world. In addition, Indonesia is the country with more Muslims in the world
Indonesia is a republic with a legislature and a president elected by popular vote and the government has its headquartersin the city of Jakarta, the capital. Despite being an archipelago, the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore to Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Palau, Australia and the Indian Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for international trade since theseventh century, when the kingdom of Srivijaya began trading with China and India. Gradually, local governments adopted the culture, religion and political model of the Indians, and in the first century AD C. Hindus and Buddhists several kingdoms began to flourish in the region. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers seeking to exploit their natural resources
After Muslim tradersbrought Islam, and during the Age of Discovery, European powers began to dispute the monopoly of the spice trade in the Moluccas. After three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia gained its independence shortly after World War II. Since then, Indonesia's history has been turbulent, facing the great challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, the democratizationprocess and periods of economic change.
Through its many islands, the people of Indonesia consists of distinct ethnic, linguistic and religious. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group and politically dominant. Indonesia has developed a shared identity defined by a national language for ethnic, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population and a history of colonialism and its constantstruggle against it. The national motto of Indonesia, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in diversity"), articulates the diversity that makes up the nation. However, sectarian tensions and separatism have led to violent confrontations that have undermined political and economic stability in the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast unpopulated areas thatmake it one of the most biodiverse in the world, joining the list of diverse countries
Although the country is amply endowed in natural resources, poverty is a defining characteristic of the contemporary Indonesia

History

Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited for two million years
The Austronesian, whoconstitute the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from the current Taiwan. Around 2000 BC C., arrived in Indonesia and while expanding their territories, confined the native Melanesian to inhabit the eastern islands of the archipelago.
In the early eighth century C., ideal growing conditions and development of techniques for rice cultivation allowed the emergence of smallvillages, towns and kingdoms Indonesia's strategic position fostered inter-island and international trade. For example, trade links with Indian kingdoms and China were established several centuries BC C. thus shows that trade has been a fundamental part in the history of Indonesia
From the seventh century C., flourished the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom as a result of trade and the influences...
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