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Present simple

Present simple

Use the present simple to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.

Examples :
• I play tennis.
• She does not play tennis.
• Does he play tennis?

Present continuousUse the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.

Examples :
• You are learning English now.
• You are not swimming now.
• Are you sleeping?

Past simple

Use the past simple to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific timein the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Examples :
• I saw a movie yesterday.
• I didn't see a play yesterday.
Did you have dinner last night?

Past continuous

Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter actionin the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

• I was watching TV when she called.
• When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
• While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
• What were you doing when the earthquake started?

Present perfect

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at anunspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You cannot use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We can use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.Examples:
• I have seen that movie twenty times.
• I think I have met him once before.
• There have been many earthquakes in California.
• People have traveled to the Moon

Can ,could and have to

Examples :

A week ago I couldn understand this, but now t can not .
I have to sit down because i am feeling dizzy
He can run 100 m in less than twelve seconds.

Must and have to

In theaffirmative ,both verbs express obligation : you must go . (obligation ) you have to go. (obligation )
In the negative the verbs have different meanings : you must not go (obligation)
You do not have to go . (opcional, no obligation )

Examples :
This is painful. I must find an aspiring
My brother is disabled . He has to use a special computer

Will and be going to

We use will andbe going to when we talk about the future.
We use will to talk about ourd predictions and hopes for the future.
We use be going to to talk about plans and intentions for the future .

Examples :
She is going to buy a second-hand laptop
The money will probably go to UNICEF

Present , past and future passive: affirmative anda negative

In the active voice , the subjectis active: it doessomething.
In the passive voice, the subject is passive : something happens to it .
We form passive with a form of be+ past participle.


Active : DJs imitated his style .
Passive : his style was imitated ( by DJs)

Use to

Used to + verb expresses a habit or repeated action in the past .

I used to play basketball when I was younger .
We used to have a dog . Now we donot.
I did not use to read books .

Relative pronouns

The person who I was sitting with was very funny
A vegetarian is a person who does not eat meat .
A calculator is a machine which an calculate .
A workshop is a place where artists work .
The car which we were travelling in was new.

Which relative pronounds do we use for prople, places , objects .

Gerunds and infinitive...
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