This grammar book is dedicated to Go~l. My gratitude goes to my teachers and colleagues for their friendly and helpful suggestions.
I would like to thank the many people who made the publication of this grammar book possible My deepest appreciation goes to my mother, Raquel Lugo, who contributed numerous items and assisted in researching,proofreading, piloting, and revising throughout the preparation of the manuscript.
It is with affection and appreciation that I acknowledge my indebtedness to Consuelo Dardón Director of the English language Institute Harmon Hall Balderas, who initiated me into the science of linguistics and the art of teaching English as a foreign language.
I am also very grateful to my teachers, Ricardo Blancas,Renato Garcia
For their enthusiastic encouragement during the preparation of the manuscript and for their assistance in typing and proofreading this and each of the previous grammar book.
Finally, a special word of thanks goes to my father, Roberto Sánchez, who died in 1984.
THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH
On the island of Britain, the first men make their homes in caves.Historians gave them the names of Iberians.
Later, about 3000 years ago, new people from the hot coasts the Mediterranean Sea, discovered the Island. These Bronze Age men to live on high ground where the earth was soft.
Several centuries later, people from the east of Europe came, Celts is the name given to these people. The Celts continued to arrive until the first century B.C. They spokedifferent dialects depending on the place they lived. The people in Wales spoke welsh. The people in the highlands of Scotland spoke Gaelic. And the people in Ireland spoke erse and breton. People in Europe Learnt or the Island so the Greeks called it "ALBION"
When Rome was at its height in power and splendour, Julius Caesar invaded Britain Twice. First in 55 B.C., He was unable to conquer thewild tribes that fought in families. And then in 54 B.C, the defeated the Celts in the south east, but returned to Rome.
In 44 A.D., the Roman emperor Claudius decided to conquer "Britannia" as it was called then. He easily defeated the Celtic tribes even though cardoc (a Celtic chief) fought the Romans bravely for about six years.
The Romans organized Britain as another of the provinces. Thecountry prospered because roman rule was strong. They brought organization and peace to the country. People began to read and write in Latin. The roman Ianguage.
Londinium, the Celtic name for london, developed as a great port, but after well over 300 yeras of domination, the romans were recalled home to protec the heart of their empire.
So, Britain became a prey to pirates and adventurers and couldnot portect themselves from bribesmen from scotland called picts and invaders from Ireland known as scots. Vainly the britsh called on Rome for help. Finally, a british king, (vorticern) asked two Germanic brothers, hengest and horsa to help him against attacks from the picts. But, they turned against vortigern himself, took the land, drove the britons from kent and established therrisetvés: ~~The news spread and german tribes; angles, jutes, and saxons invaded england.
According to legend, king arthur, led the britons in a victorious battle, but did not permanently halt the infiltration. So, the britons were reduced to there kingdoms: wales in the west, cornwall in the southeast, and strathclyde in the northwest.
The Germanic invaders divided the rest of england into sevenkingdoms called heptarchiy. The jutes ruled kent; the saxons took essex, wessex and sussex: and the angles acquired eat anglia, mercia, and northumbria, the jutes spoke kentish, the saxons spoke saxon and the angles in the north spoke northumbrian and in the south spoke mercian.
This heptarchy was united under Egbert, the first king of England. It Is true that when they frist came to angleland, as...