Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador |
Flag | Coat of arms |
Motto: Quaerite prime regnum Dei
English: Seek ye first the kingdom of God (Matthew 6:33) |
Capital | St. John's |
Official languages | English |
Type | Constitutional monarchy |
Monarch | Elizabeth II |
Flower | Pitcher plant |Tree | Black Spruce |
Bird | Atlantic Puffin |
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. It incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador. The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of English, French, and Irish. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's
The name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (atranslation from theLatin Terra Nova). The origin of Labrador is credited to both João Fernandes Lavrador.
The oldest accounts of European contact was made over a thousand years ago as described in the Viking. The Archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement was found in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, which was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978.The Portuguese mariner João Fernandes Lavrador visited the north Atlantic coast, Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers explored Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St John's in August 1583, and formally took possession of the island.
Colony ofNewfoundland 1610–1728
Newfoundland became one of the first permanent English colonies in the New World. From 1610 to 1728, Proprietary Governors were appointed to establish colonial settlements on the island. Explorers soon realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic. A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, and Europe gave Newfoundland an importanteconomic role.
In the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), France acknowledged British ownership of the island. However, in the Seven Years War (1756–63), control of Newfoundland became a major source of conflict between Britain, France and Spain who all pressed for a share in the valuable fishery there. By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), French fishermen were given the right to land and cure fish on the"French Shore" on the western coast.
Dominion of Newfoundland
Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring Dominion status in 1907. A dominion constituted a self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth and the Dominion of Newfoundland was relatively autonomous from British rule.
The Convention set up committees to study where Newfoundland's future layThree main factionsactively campaigned during the lead up to the referendums. One faction, led by Smallwood, was the Confederate Association ,The Responsible Government League and The Economic Union Party (EUP). The EUP failed to gain much attention, and merged with the RGL after the first referendum.
GeographyNewfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located on the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical divisions, Labrador and Newfoundland, which is an island surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean. The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of itsborder with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland.
Newfoundland and Labrador is home to a variety of climates and weather.The main reasons for diversity...