Life is work of art

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism), also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a behavior), is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things that organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors.[1] The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientificallywithout recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as the mind.[2] Behaviorism comprises the position that all theories should have observational correlates but that there are no philosophical differences between publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such as thinking and feeling).[3]
From early psychology in the19th century, the behaviorist school of thought ran concurrently and shared commonalities with the psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements in psychology into the 20th century; but also differed from the mental philosophy of the Gestalt psychologists in critical ways.[citation needed] Its main influences were Ivan Pavlov, who investigated classical conditioning although he did not necessarily agree withBehaviourism or Behaviourists, Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. Watson who rejected introspective methods and sought to restrict psychology to experimental methods, and B. F. Skinner who conducted research on operant conditioning.
In the second half of the twentieth century, behaviorism was largely eclipsed as a result of the cognitive revolution.[4] [5] While behaviorism and cognitive schools ofpsychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practical therapeutic applications, such as in cognitive-behavioral therapy that has demonstrable utility in treating certain pathologies, such as simple phobias, PTSD, and addiction. In addition, behaviorism sought to create a comprehensive model of the stream of behavior from the birth of the human to hisdeath
There is no classification generally agreed upon, but some titles given to the various branches of behaviorism include:
* Methodological: The behaviorism of Watson; the objective study of behavior; no mental life, no internal states; thought is covert speech.
* Radical: Skinner's behaviorism; is considered radical since it expands behavioral principles to processes within theorganism; in contrast to methodological behaviorism; not mechanistic or reductionist; hypothetical (mentalistic) internal states are not considered causes of behavior, phenomena must be observable at least to the individual experiencing them. Willard Van Orman Quine used many of radical behaviorism's ideas in his study of knowing and language.
* Teleological: Post-Skinnerian, purposive, closeto microeconomics. Focuses on objective observation as opposed to cognitive processes.
* Theoretical: Post-Skinnerian, accepts observable internal states ("within the skin" once meant "unobservable", but with modern technology we are not so constrained); dynamic, but eclectic in choice of theoretical structures, emphasizes parsimony.
* Biological: Post-Skinnerian, centered on perceptualand motor modules of behavior, theory of behavior systems.
* Psychological behaviorism: Arthur W. Staats' unifying approach to behaviorism and psychology. He merges psychological concepts like "personality" within a behavioral model like BBR Basic Behavioral Repertoires.
Two subtypes are:
* Hullian and post-Hullian: theoretical, group data, not dynamic, physiological;
* Purposive:Tolman's behavioristic anticipation of cognitive psychology
B.F. Skinner was influential in defining radical behaviorism, a philosophy codifying the basis of his school of research (named the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, or EAB.) While EAB differs from other approaches to behavioral research on numerous methodological and theoretical points, radical behaviorism departs from...