A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine aninternal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.
Power sources for hybrid vehicle include:
On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)
Petrolor Diesel fuel
Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing
Compressed or liquefiednatural gas
Waste heat from internal combustion engine.
Coal, wood or other solid combustibles
Electromagnetic fields, Radio waves
Two-wheeled and cycle-typevehicles
Mopeds and electric bicycles are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes ofmotorcycles in the late 1800s used the same principles.
In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel,e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured models are ofthis type. See Motorized bicycles,Mopeds and for more information.
In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity andcan be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque requiredbecause none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.
The first known prototype and publication...