# Manual latex

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A A Using Imported Graphics in L TEX and pdfL TEX Keith Reckdahl epslatex at yahoo dot com Version 3.0.1 January 12, 2006

A This document describes ﬁrst how to import graphics into L TEX documents and then covers a wide variety issues about their use. Readers can locate speciﬁc information by checking the Table of Contents starting on page 5 or the Index starting on page 122.

Importinggraphics begins with specifying the graphicx package
\usepackage{graphicx}

and then using the \includegraphics command to insert the ﬁle
\includegraphics{file}

The \includegraphics command is covered in more detail in Section 7 on Page 22. This document is divided into the following ﬁve parts Part I: Background Information
A This part provides historical information and describes basic LTEX terminology. It also

• The Encapsulated PostScript (eps) format, diﬀerences between eps and ps ﬁles, and methods for converting non-eps graphics to eps. • The graphic formats that can be directly imported with pdfTEX (jpeg, png, pdf, MetaPost) are described. • Freeware/Shareware graphics software is described.
A Part II: The L TEX Graphics Bundle This part describes the commands in thegraphics bundle which import, scale, and rotate graphics. This part covers much of the information in the graphics bundle documentation [7].

Part III: Using Graphics Inclusion Commands This part describes how the graphics bundle commands are used to import, rotate, and scale graphics. Three situations where graphics inclusion is modiﬁed are also covered:
© Copyright 1995-2006 by Keith Reckdahl.Reproduction and distribution is allowed under terms A of the L TEX Project Public License (LPPL). See http://www.latex-project.org/lppl/ for the details of the LPPL license.

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• Compressed eps ﬁles and non-eps graphic formats (tiff, gif, jpeg, pict, etc.) can also be inserted on-the-ﬂy when dvips is used with an operating system which supports pipes (such as Unix). When using otheroperating systems, the non-eps graphics must be converted to eps beforehand. A Since neither L TEX nor dvips has any built-in decompression or graphicsconversion capabilities, that software must be provided by the user. • Since many graphics applications support only ascii text, the psfrag A system allows text in eps ﬁles to be replaced with L TEX symbols or mathematical expressions. • When an epsgraphic is inserted multiple times (such as a logo behind the text or in the page header) the ﬁnal PostScript includes multiple copies of the graphics. When the graphics are not bitmapped, a smaller ﬁnal PostScript ﬁle can be obtained by deﬁning a PostScript command for the graphics. Part IV: The ﬁgure Environment There are several advantages to placing graphics in ﬁgure environments. Figureenvironments automatically number graphics, allowing them to be referenced or included in a table of contents. Since the ﬁgures can ﬂoat to avoid poor page breaks, it is much easier to produce a professional-looking document. In addition to general information about the ﬁgure environment, this section describes the following ﬁgure-related topics: • How to customize the ﬁgure environment, such as adjustingﬁgure placement, ﬁgure spacing, caption spacing, and adding horizontal line between the ﬁgure and the text. Caption formatting can also be customized, allowing users to modify the style, width, and font of captions. • How to create marginal ﬁgures and wide ﬁgures which extend into the margins. • How to produce ﬁgures with landscape orientation in a portrait document. • How to place captionsbeside the ﬁgure instead of below or above the ﬁgure. • For two-sided documents, how to ensure that a ﬁgure appears on an odd or even page. Also, how to ensure that two ﬁgures appear on facing pages. • How to create boxed ﬁgures. Part V: Complex Figures This part describes how to construct complex ﬁgures that contain multiple graphics. • How to form side-by-side graphics, side-by-side ﬁgures, and...