Martial arts of the world an encyclopedia

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Martial Arts of the World

Martial Arts of the World
An Encyclopedia Volume One: A–Q
Edited by Thomas A. Green

Santa Barbara, California Denver, Colorado Oxford, England

Copyright © 2001 by Thomas A. Green All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or otherwise, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission in writing from the publishers. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Martial arts of the world: an encyclopedia / [edited] by Thomas A. Green. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-57607-150-2 (hardcover: alk. paper); 1-57607-556-7 (ebook) 1. Martialarts—Encyclopedias. I. Green, Thomas A., 1944– GV1101.M29 2001 796.8'03—dc21 06 05 04 03 02 01

2001002823 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an e-book. Visit abc-clio.com for details. ABC-CLIO, Inc. 130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911 Santa Barbara, California 93116-1911 This book is printed on acid-free paper I . Manufactured in the United States of America Contents
Editorial Board, ix Contributor List, xi Introduction, xv A Note on Romanization, xix

Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia
Volume 1: A–Q
Africa and African America, 1 Aikidô, 12 Animal and Imitative Systems in Chinese Martial Arts, 16 Archery, Japanese, 18 Baguazhang (Pa Kua Ch’uan), 23 Boxing, Chinese, 26 Boxing, Chinese Shaolin Styles, 32 Boxing, European, 44 BrazilianJiu-Jitsu, 52 Budô, Bujutsu, and Bugei, 56 Capoeira, 61 China, 65 Chivalry, 72 Combatives: Military and Police Martial Art Training, 83 Dueling, 97 Europe, 109 External vs. Internal Chinese Martial Arts, 119 Folklore in the Martial Arts, 123 Form/Xing/Kata/Pattern Practice, 135 Gladiators, 141 Gunfighters, 149 Hapkidô, 157 Heralds, 162 Iaidô, 169 India, 173 Japan, 179

v

Japanese MartialArts, Chinese Influences on, 199 Jeet Kune Do, 202 Jûdô, 210 Kajukenbo, 219 Kalarippayattu, 225 Karate, Japanese, 232 Karate, Okinawan, 240 Kendô, 249 Kenpô, 255 Ki/Qi, 260 Knights, 263 Kobudô, Okinawan, 286 Korea, 291 Korean Martial Arts, Chinese Influences on, 299 Koryû Bugei, Japanese, 301 Krav Maga, 306 Kung Fu/Gungfu/Gongfu, 313 Masters of Defence, 317 Medicine, Traditional Chinese, 327Meditation, 335 Middle East, 338 Mongolia, 344 Muay Thai, 350 Ninjutsu, 355 Okinawa, 363 Orders of Knighthood, Religious, 368 Orders of Knighthood, Secular, 384 Pacific Islands, 403 Pankration, 410 Performing Arts, 417 Philippines, 422 Political Conflict and the Martial Arts, 435
vi Contents

Volume 2: R–Z
Rank, 445 Religion and Spiritual Development: Ancient Mediterranean and Medieval West, 447Religion and Spiritual Development: China, 455 Religion and Spiritual Development: India, 462 Religion and Spiritual Development: Japan, 472 Sambo, 507 Samurai, 514 Savate, 519 Silat, 524 Social Uses of the Martial Arts, 532 Southeast Asia, 538 Stage Combat, 551 Stickfighting, Non-Asian, 556 Sword, Japanese, 564 Swordsmanship, European Medieval, 570 Swordsmanship, European Renaissance, 579Swordsmanship, Japanese, 588 Swordsmanship, Korean/Hankuk Haedong Kumdô, 597 T’aek’kyo 603 ˘n, Taekwondo, 608 Taijiquan (Tai Chi Ch’uan), 617 Thaing, 629 Thang-Ta, 637 Training Area, 643 Varma Ati, 647 Vovinam/Viet Vo Dao, 651 Warrior Monks, Japanese/Sôhei, 659 Women in the Martial Arts, 664

Women in the Martial Arts: Britain and North America, 684 Women in the Martial Arts: China, 689 Women in the MartialArts: Japan, 692 Wrestling and Grappling: China, 705 Wrestling and Grappling: Europe, 710 Wrestling and Grappling: India, 719

Wrestling and Grappling: Japan, 727 Wrestling, Professional, 735 Written Texts: China, 745 Written Texts: India, 749 Written Texts: Japan, 758 Xingyiquan (Hsing I Ch’uan), 775 Yongchun/Wing Chun, 781

Chronological History of the Martial Arts, 787 Index, 839 About...
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