Module: LB306 Eluali Larbi H H
Mass Media in Western Sahara and North West Africa
The Mass Media (MM) in North Africa has been very limited since the times of decolonization.
The North of Africa is generally rule by an Islamic monarchical political regime such as Morocco, only a few countriesenjoy a democratic system in the north of Africa such as is the case of the SADR (Saharawi Arab Democratic republic). The North of Africa it has some countries with development issues because of recent civil wars and/or civil revolts such as Algeria, a country that is slowly recovering from formers corrupt governments. Another country to analyze in this essay with very similar issues to Algeria isMauritania.
These three countries are surrounding the territory of the self-determined SADR (Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic) and Western Sahara. This non recognized nation is involved in a 31 years war, since its decolonization by Spain, with Morocco for its independence and have been exiled from the Western Sahara territories to the south of Algeria in Middle of the Sahara dessert. Near thearea of Tindouf is where the Saharawi people live at the refugee camp established more than 30 years ago.
In this essay will attempt to describe and analyze the Mass Media in this countries and nations mentioned above.
Introduction to the North West Africa Media
In order to have a better understanding of the situation in this assignment we will analyze the countries mentioned above, one byone in different ways such as media history, freedom of expression and censorship, and facts that will help to elaborate a conclusion.
SADR (Polisario Front)
The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is a partly recognised state that claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, former Spanish colony. SADR was proclaimed by the Polisario Front on February 27, 1976 in Bir Lehlu,Western Sahara. The SADR government controls about 20-25% of the territory it claims as its own by right. These lands are called Liberated Territories or the Free Zone. Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory. The SADR government considers the Moroccan-held territory, occupied territory, while Morocco considers the much smaller SADR held territory to be a buffer zone.
Dueto this occupation by Morocco to the Western Sahara territories, more than half million Saharawi people run away in a massive exodus to Algerian lands where they settled their refugee camp more than 30 years ago now, near Tindouf, in the Sahara dessert at the south of Algeria territory.
The media history of SADR is very brief because of the lack of resources due to their situation. But in thelast years SADR has made major advancements in what media refers.
The Sahara Press Services (SPS) was established at the Sahrawi refugee camps in March 1999, it started as media propaganda information mainly reporting government-related news and current affairs source for those who live in the occupied territories and the Saharawi refugee camps, reporting in four languages, Arab, Spanish, French andEnglish.
Also after 5 years of broadcasting in test mode, finally in may of 2009 the RASD TV start to broadcasting as a consolidate TV channel, broadcasting in analogue and satellite to the Saharawi refugee camp and to the occupied territories thanks to international help.
This media is controlled by the democratically elected government and is sustained by international help such as ONG.Morocco
The first newspaper to appear in Morocco was an English weekly called "Maghreb Al Aksa" in 1877.Such publications were not generally available in Moroccan cities until 1908. There was one newspaper before : El Eco de Tetuán 1860 in Spanish. It was founded by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón, Spanish writer and journalist
Between 1912 and 1956 Morocco was a protectorate within the French...