The new era for the design of hospitals in Guatemala has arrived; the boom of the adjustment of the hospital system has led to many professionals interested in the issue.
With the help of the Italian government we established a new methodology applied directly to the need of Guatemala, to make a change, first in the existing healthstructure and in the proposed new hospital design.
This methodology is used specifically in the study of cases like “The Regional Hospital of Zacapa” which in the third level counts with 220 useful beds; that treats different branches of medicine like: General medicine, Pediatrics, Trauma, Surgery and Obstetrics.
The process used in the methodology takes several factors in consideration that sums inseven that stood out: Territorial local issues , Demographic aspects of health, The health organization, Networks of health services, The SWOT analysis of the existing hospital structure or design, The functional diagram , Finally the project guide.
Territorial local issues: The hospital on which this study is based is located in the City of Zacapa, and this belongs to the ten small towns thatare part of Zacapa, this Town is located west, 156 kilometers away from Guatemala City, it has a territorial extension of 517 square kilometers and a population of de 64,668 habitants. The weather that prevails in this region is in a range of 27 to 34 degrees Celsius.
The agriculture and the animal production is how the economy is based on. The city contemplates all the necessary services andthe basic infrastructure to function.
Demographic aspects of health: To analyze the demographics of the small town of Zacapa, it had to be contemplated in a larger level of analysis, taking in consideration the City itself, to have the knowledge of the coverage level that the hospital has. The data analyzed were the following:
TOTAL POPULATION | 211,118 hab. |
WOMEN | 51.8%|
MEN | 48.2% |
1 YEAR | 2.9% |
FROM 1 – 4 YEARS | 11% |
% NATIVE POPULATION | 4.46% |
TOTAL BIRTHS IN 2004 | 5.351 |
TOTAL BIRTHS IN 2005 | 4.763 |
BIRTH RATE | 22.99% |
VEGETATIVE GROWTH | 1.82% |
At a city level, as the years go by the demographic development has been more than clear, the growth in the city, where the growth has been from inside out, and it allows thehospital to remain within the surroundings of the city and having direct accessibility to it.
The demographic indicators of the city are the following:
TOTAL POPULATION | 64,796hab. |
POPULATION DENSITY (HABITANTES/KM²) | 128 |
GROWTH RATE | 1.59 |
BIRTH RATE | 21.42 |
FECUNDITY RATE | 6.02 |
This results shows that most of the birth rate is located within the City of Zacapa butnot in the surroundings, because it’s in here that the hospital is located and it’s meant to fulfill the needs of the entire region.
At a health level the hospital reflects the following:
* General causes of morbidity:
1. cute respiratory infection 2. Intestinal parasites 3. tooth decay 4. unspecified gastritis 5. headache 6. urinary tract infections 7. acutetonsillitis unspecified 8. type of anemia unspecified 9. mycosis unspecified 10. otitis media unspecified | 11. arthritis unspecified 12. hypertension 13. conjunctivitis 14. allergy unspecified 15. neuralgia 16. dermatitis unspecified 17. cataract 18. diarrhea 19. other causes |
One of the main causes of hospital morbidity reflecting both men and women are respiratory infectionsdespite Zacapa is a high temperature, then followed by intestinal infections, caused mainly by lack of cleanliness in the water they eat.
* General causes of mortality:
1. unspecified cardiac arrest 2. acute myocardial infarction 3. trauma cranioencephalico 4. shock hypovolemic 5. vascular brain injury 6. pneumonia and bronchopneumonia | 7. diabetes mellitus 8....