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Microcontrollers Fundamentals for Engineers and Scientists

Copyright © 2006 by Morgan & Claypool All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other except for brief quotations in printed reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.Microcontrollers Fundamentals for Engineers and Scientists Steven F. Barrett and Daniel J. Pack www.morganclaypool.com 1598290584 paper Barrett/Pack 1598290592 ebook Barrett/Pack DOI 10.2200/S00025ED1V01Y200605DCS001 A Publication in the Morgan & Claypool Publishers’ series SYNTHESIS LECTURES ON DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS Lecture #1 First Edition 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States ofAmerica

Microcontrollers Fundamentals for Engineers and Scientists
Steven F. Barrett
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming USA

Daniel J. Pack
Department of Electrical Engineering, United State Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

SYNTHESIS LECTURES ON DIGITAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS #1

M &C

Mor gan

& Cl aypoolPublishers

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ABSTRACT
This book provides practicing scientists and engineers a tutorial on the fundamental concepts and use of microcontrollers. Today, microcontrollers, or single integrated circuit (chip) computers, play critical roles in almost all instrumentation and control systems. Most existing books are written for undergraduate and graduate students taking an electrical and/orcomputer engineering course. Furthermore, these texts have been written with a particular model of microcontroller as the target discussion. These textbooks also require a requisite knowledge of digital design fundamentals. This textbook presents the fundamental concepts common to all microcontrollers. Our goals are to present the over-arching theory of microcontroller operation and to provide adetailed discussion on constituent subsystems available in most microcontrollers. With such goals, we envision that the theory discussed in this book can be readily applied to a wide variety of microcontroller technologies, allowing practicing scientists and engineers to become acquainted with basic concepts prior to beginning a design involving a specific microcontroller. We have found that thefundamental principles of a given microcontroller are easily transferred to other controllers. Although this is a relatively small book, it is packed with useful information for quickly coming up to speed on microcontroller concepts.

KEYWORDS
Microcontrollers, embedded systems design, systems-on-chip technology, control, digital design, computer engineering, digital design

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Contents
1.Digital Design Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Binary Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 2 1.2.1 Representation of Integers and Floating Point Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.2.2 Two’s Complement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.3 Floating Point Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.4 Basic Math Operations: Addition and Subtraction . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.1 Unicode and ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.2 Gray Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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